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Английское онлайн занятие в рамках курса Английский онлайн для врачей. Индивидуальное занятие с Анной Пиковской, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time
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Английское онлайн занятие в рамках курса Английский онлайн для врачей. Индивидуальное занятие с Анной Пиковской, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time

ВАЖНО! К практическим урокам в рамках Интенсивного курса не существует аудиозаписей - вся работа ведется с учениками вживую прямо на онлайн уроке!

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Chapter 1: Cultural and Psychological Implications of Neuroses

We use the term "neurotic" quite freely today without always having, however, a clear conception of what it denotes. Often it is hardly more than a slightly highbrow way of expressing disapproval: one who formerly would have been content to say lazy, sensitive, demanding or suspicious, is now likely to say instead "neurotic." Yet we do have something in mind when we use the term, and without being quite aware of it, we apply certain criteria to determine its choice.

First of all, neurotic persons are different from the average individuals in their reactions. We should be inclined to consider neurotic, for example, a girl who prefers to remain in the rank and file, refuses to accept an increased salary and does not wish to be identified with her superiors, or an artist who earns thirty dollars a week but could earn more if he gave more time to his work, and who prefers instead to enjoy life as well as he can on that amount, to spend a good deal of his time in the company of women or in indulging in technical hobbies. The reason we should call such persons neurotic is that most of us are familiar, and exclusively familiar, with a behaviour pattern that implies wanting to get ahead in the world, to get ahead of others, to earn more money than the bare minimum for existence.

These examples show that one criterion we apply in designating a person as neurotic is whether his mode of living coincides with any of the recognized behaviour patterns of our time. If the girl without competitive drives, or at least without apparent competitive drives, lived in some Pueblo Indian culture, she would be considered entirely normal, or if the artist lived in a village in Southern Italy or in Mexico he, too, would be considered normal, because in those environments it is inconceivable that anyone should want to earn more money or to make any greater effort than is absolutely necessary to satisfy immediate needs. Going farther back, in Greece the attitude of wanting to work more than one’s needs required would have been considered positively indecent.

Thus the term neurotic, while originally medical, cannot be used now without its cultural implications. One can diagnose a broken leg without knowing the cultural background of the patient, but one would run a great risk in calling an Indian boy psychotic because he told us that he had visions in which he believed. In the particular culture of these Indians the experience of visions and hallucinations is regarded as a special gift, a blessing from the spirits, and they are deliberately induced as conferring a certain prestige on the person who has them. With us a person would be neurotic or psychotic who talked by the hour with his deceased grandfather, whereas such communication with ancestors is a recognized pattern in some Indian tribes. A person who felt mortally offended if the name of a deceased relative were mentioned we should consider neurotic indeed, but he would be absolutely normal in the Jicarilla Apache culture. A man mortally frightened by the approach of a menstruating woman we should consider neurotic, while with many primitive tribes fear concerning menstruation is the average attitude.

The conception of what is normal varies not only with the culture but also within the same culture, in the course of time. Today, for example, if a mature and independent woman were to consider herself "a fallen woman," "unworthy of the love of a decent man," because she had had sexual relationships, she would be suspected of a neurosis, at least in many circles of society. Some forty years ago this attitude of guilt would have been considered normal. The conception of normality varies also with the different classes of society. Members of the feudal class, for example, find it normal for a man to be lazy all the time, active only at hunting or warring, whereas a person of the small bourgeois class showing the same attitude would be considered decidedly abnormal. This variation is found also according to sex distinctions, as far as they exist in society, as they do in Western culture, where men and women are supposed to have different temperaments. For a woman to become obsessed with the dread of growing old as she approaches the forties is, again, "normal," while a man getting jittery about age at that period of life would be neurotic.

To some extent every educated person knows that there are variations in what is regarded as normal. We know that the Chinese eat foods different from ours; that the Eskimos have different conceptions of cleanliness; that the medicine-man has different ways of curing the sick from those used by the modern physician. That there are, however, variations not only in customs but also in drives and feelings, is less generally understood, though implicitly or explicitly it has been stated by anthropologists. It is one of the merits of modern anthropology, as Sapir has put it, to be always rediscovering the normal.

For good reasons every culture clings to the belief that its own feelings and drives are the one normal expression of "human nature," and psychology has not made an exception to this rule. Freud, for example, concludes from his observations that woman is more jealous than man, and then tries to account for this presumably general phenomenon on biological grounds. Freud also seems to assume that all human beings experience guilt feelings concerning murder. It is an indisputable fact, however, that the greatest variations exist in the attitude toward killing. As Peter Freuchen has shown, the Eskimos do not feel that a murderer requires punishment. In many primitive tribes the injury done a family when one of its members is killed by an outsider may be repaired by presenting a substitute. In some cultures the feelings of a mother whose son has been killed can be assuaged by adopting the murderer in his place.

Making further use of anthropological findings we must recognize that some of our conceptions about human nature are rather naive, for example the idea that competitiveness, sibling rivalry, kinship between affection and sexuality, are trends inherent in human nature. Our conception of normality is arrived at by the approval of certain standards of behaviour and feeling within a certain group which imposes these standards upon its members. But the standards vary with culture, period, class and sex.

These considerations have more far-reaching implications for psychology than appears at first impression. The immediate consequence is a feeling of doubt about psychological omniscience. From resemblances between findings concerning our culture and those concerning other cultures we must not conclude that both are due to the same motivations. It is no longer valid to suppose that a new psychological finding reveals a universal trend inherent in human nature. The effect of all this is to confirm what some sociologists have repeatedly asserted: that there is no such thing as a normal psychology, which holds for all mankind.

These limitations, however, are more than compensated by the opening up of new possibilities of understanding. The essential implication of these anthropological considerations is that feelings and attitudes are to an amazingly high degree moulded by the conditions under which we live, both cultural and individual, inseparably interwoven. This in turn means that if we know the cultural conditions under which we live we have a good chance of gaining a much deeper understanding of the special character of normal feelings and attitudes. And inasmuch as neuroses are deviations from the normal pattern of behaviour there is for them, too, a prospect of better understanding.

In part, taking this way means following Freud along the path that led him ultimately to present the world with a hitherto unthought-of understanding of neuroses. While in theory Freud traced back our peculiarities to biologically-given drives he has emphatically represented the opinion - in theory and still more in practice - that we cannot understand a neurosis without a detailed knowledge of the individual’s life circumstances, particularly the moulding influences of affection in early childhood. Applying the same principle to the problem of normal and neurotic structures in a given culture means that we cannot understand these structures without a detailed knowledge of the influences the particular culture exerts over the individual.

For the rest it means that we have to take a definite step beyond Freud, a step which is possible, though, only on the basis of Freud’s revealing discoveries. For although in one respect he is far ahead of his own time, in another - in his over-emphasis on the biological origin of mental characteristics - Freud has remained rooted in its scientific orientations. He has assumed that the instinctual drives or object relationships that are frequent in our culture are biologically determined "human nature" or arise out of unalterable situations (biologically given "pregenital" stages, Oedipus complex).

Freud’s disregard of cultural factors not only leads to false generalizations, but to a large extent blocks an understanding of the real forces, which motivate our attitudes and actions. I believe that this disregard is the main reason why psychoanalysis, inasmuch as it faithfully follows the theoretical paths beaten by Freud, seems in spite of its seemingly boundless potentialities to have come into a blind alley, manifesting itself in a rank growth of abstruse theories and the use of a shadowy terminology.

We have seen now that a neurosis involves deviation from the normal. This criterion is very important, though it is not sufficient. Persons may deviate from the general pattern without having a neurosis. The artist cited above, who refused to give more time than necessary to earning money, may have a neurosis or he may simply be wise in not permitting himself to be pulled into the current of competitive struggle. On the other hand, many persons may have a severe neurosis who according to surface observation are adapted to existing patterns of life. It is in such cases that the psychological or medical point of view is necessary.

Curiously enough, it is anything but easy to say what constitutes a neurosis from this point of view. At any rate, as long as we study the manifest picture alone, it is difficult to find characteristics common to all neuroses. We certainly cannot use the symptoms - such as phobias, depressions, functional physical disorders - as a criterion, because they may not be present. Inhibitions of some sort are always present, for reasons I shall discuss later, but they may be so subtle or so well disguised as to escape surface observation. The same difficulties would arise if we should judge from the manifest picture alone the disturbances in relations with other people, including the disturbances in sexual relations. These are never missing but they may be very difficult to discern. There are two characteristics, however, which one may discern in all neuroses without having an intimate knowledge of the personality structure: a certain rigidity in reaction and a discrepancy between potentialities and accomplishments.

Both characteristics need further explanation. By rigidity in reactions, I mean a lack of that flexibility which enables us to react differently to different situations. The normal person, for instance, is suspicious where he senses or sees reasons for being so; a neurotic person may be suspicious, regardless of the situation, all the time, whether he is aware of his state or not. A normal person is able to discriminate between compliments meant sincerely and those of an insincere nature; the neurotic person does not differentiate between the two or may discount them altogether, under all conditions. A normal person will be spiteful if he feels an unwarranted imposition; a neurotic may react with spite to any insinuation, even if he realizes that it is in his own interest. A normal person may be undecided, at times, in a matter important and difficult to decide; a neurotic may be undecided at all times.

Rigidity, however, is indicative of a neurosis only when it deviates from the cultural patterns. A rigid suspicion of anything new or strange is a normal pattern among a large proportion of peasants in Western civilization; and the small bourgeois’ rigid emphasis on thrift is also an example of normal rigidity.

In the same way, a discrepancy between the potentialities of a person and his actual achievements in life may be due only to external factors. But it is indicative of a neurosis if in spite of gifts and favourable external possibilities for their development the person remains unproductive; or if in spite of having all the possibilities for feeling happy he cannot enjoy what he has; or if in spite of being beautiful a woman feels that she cannot attract men. In other words, the neurotic has the impression that he stands in his own way.

Leaving aside the manifest picture and looking at the dynamics effective in producing neuroses, there is one essential factor common to all neuroses, and that is anxieties and the defences built up against them. Intricate as the structure of a neurosis may be, this anxiety is the motor which sets the neurotic process going and keeps it in motion. The meaning of this statement will become clear in the following chapters, and therefore I refrain from citing examples now. But even if it is to be accepted only tentatively as a basic principle it requires elaboration.

As it stands the statement is obviously too general. Anxieties or fears - let us use these terms interchangeably for a while - are ubiquitous, and so are defences against them. These reactions are not restricted to human beings. If an animal, frightened by some danger, either makes a counter-attack or takes flight, we have exactly the same situation of fear and defence. If we are afraid of being struck by lightning and put a lightning-rod on our roof, if we are afraid of the consequences of possible accidents and take out an insurance policy, the factors of fear and defence are likewise present. They are present in various specific forms in every culture, and may be institutionalized, as in the wearing of amulets as a defence against the fear of the evil eye, the observation of circumstantial rites against the fear of the dead, the taboos concerning the avoidance of menstruating women as a defence against the fear of evil emanating from them.

These similarities present a temptation to make a logical error. If the factors of fear and defence are essential in neuroses, why not call the institutionalized defences against fear the evidence of "cultural" neuroses? The fallacy in reasoning this way lies in the fact that two phenomena are not necessarily identical when they have one element in common. One would not call a house a rock merely because it is built out of the same material as a rock. What, then, is the characteristic of neurotic fears and defences that makes them specifically neurotic? Is it perhaps that the neurotic fears are imaginary? No, for we might also be inclined to call fear of the dead imaginary; and in both cases we should be yielding to an impression based on lack of understanding. Is it perhaps that the neurotic essentially does not know why he is afraid? No, for neither does the primitive know why he has a fear of the dead. The distinction has nothing to do with gradations of awareness or rationality, but it consists in the following two factors.

First, life conditions in every culture give rise to some fears. They may be caused by external dangers (nature, enemies), by the forms of social relationships (incitement to hostility because of suppression, injustice, enforced dependence, frustrations), by cultural traditions (traditional fear of demons, of violation of taboos) regardless of how they may have originated. An individual may be subject more or less to these fears, but on the whole it is safe to assume that they are thrust upon every individual living in a given culture, and that no one can avoid them. The neurotic, however, not only shares the fears common to all individuals in a culture, but because of conditions in his individual life - which, however, are interwoven with general conditions - he also has fears which in quantity or quality deviate from those of the cultural pattern.

Secondly, the fears existing in a given culture are warded off in general by certain protective devices (such as taboos, rites, customs). As a rule, these defences represent a more economical way of dealing with fears than do the neurotic’s defences built up in a different way. Thus the normal person, though having to undergo the fears and defences of his culture, will in general be quite capable of living up to his potentialities and of enjoying what life has to offer to him. The normal person is capable of making the best of the possibilities given in his culture. Expressing it negatively, he does not suffer more than is unavoidable in his culture. The neurotic person, on the other hand, suffers invariably more than the average person. He invariably has to pay an exorbitant price for his defences, consisting in an impairment in vitality and expansiveness, or more specifically in an impairment of his capacities for achievement and enjoyment, resulting in the discrepancy I have mentioned. In fact, the neurotic is invariably a suffering person. The only reason why I did not mention this fact when discussing the characteristics of all neuroses that can be derived from surface observation is that it is not necessarily observable from without. The neurotic himself may not even be aware of the fact that he is suffering.

Talking of fears and defences, I am afraid that by this time many readers will have become impatient about such an extensive discussion of so simple a question as what constitutes a neurosis. In defending myself, I may point out that psychic phenomena are always intricate, that while there are seemingly simple questions there is never a simple answer, that the predicament we meet here at the beginning is no exceptional one, but will accompany us throughout the book, whatever problem we shall tackle. The particular difficulty in the description of a neurosis lies in the fact that a satisfactory answer can be given neither with psychological nor with sociological tools alone, but that they must be taken up alternately, first one and then the other, as in fact have we done. If we should regard a neurosis only from the point of view of its dynamics and psychic structure, we should hypostatize a normal human being: he does not exist. We run into more difficulties as soon as we pass the borderline of our own country or of countries with a culture similar to our own. Moreover, if we regard a neurosis only from the sociological point of view as a mere deviation from the behaviour pattern common to a certain society, we neglect grossly all we know about the psychological characteristics of a neurosis, and no psychiatrist of any school or country would recognize the results as what he is accustomed to designate a neurosis. The reconcilement of the two approaches lies in a method of observation that considers the deviation both in the manifest picture of the neurosis and in the dynamics of the psychic processes, but without considering either deviation as the primary and decisive one. The two must be combined. This in general is the way we have gone in pointing out that fear and defence are one of the dynamic centres of a neurosis, but constitute a neurosis only when deviating in quantity or quality from the fears and defences patterned in the same culture.

We have to go one step farther in the same direction. There is still another essential characteristic of a neurosis and that is the presence of conflicting tendencies of the existence of which, or at least of the precise content of which, the neurotic himself is unaware, and for which he automatically tries to reach certain compromise solutions. It is this latter characteristic, which in various forms Freud has stressed as an indispensable constituent of neuroses. What distinguishes the neurotic conflicts from those commonly existing in a culture is neither their content nor the fact that they are essentially unconscious - in both respects the common cultural conflicts may be identical - but the fact that in the neurotic the conflicts are sharper and more accentuated. The neurotic person attempts and arrives at compromise solutions - not inopportunely classified as neurotic - and these solutions are less satisfactory than those of the average individual and are achieved at great expense to the whole personality.

Reviewing all these considerations, we are not yet able to give a well-rounded definition of a neurosis, but we can arrive at a description: a neurosis is a psychic disturbance brought about by fears and defences against these fears, and by attempts to find compromise solutions for conflicting tendencies. For practical reasons it is advisable to call this disturbance a neurosis only if it deviates from the pattern common to the particular culture.

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Готовимся к английскому экзамену IELTS Academic Module Reading - онлайн подготовка к IELTS. Экзамен IELTS Reading Academic Module: английские онлайн тесты IELTS с ответами
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Готовимся к английскому экзамену IELTS Academic Module Reading - онлайн подготовка к IELTS. Экзамен IELTS Reading Academic Module: английские онлайн тесты IELTS с ответами

ВАЖНО! К подготовительным онлайн-урокам к модулю IELTS Reading не существует аудиозаписей: уроки не записываются - разбор онлайн теста IELTS ведется с учениками прямо на онлайн уроке!

Цель нашего сегодняшнего урока - онлайн подготовка к международному экзамену IELTS Reading. Мы с Вами будем читать английский текст к экзамену IELTS, разбирать грамматические конструкции, наращивать словарный запас, выполнять тесты IELTS онлайн с ответами и давать правильные ответы на хитрые экзаменационные вопросы IELTS. Но прежде, чем мы приступим к занятию по IELTS Reading, я хочу дать Вам пару десятков полезных советов по сдаче IELTS.

Как правильно подготовиться к кембриджскому экзамену IELTS Listening?

Те, кто уже занимался со мной по модулю Listening теста IELTS, тот поймет, что искать легких путей для прохождения модуля IELTS Reading не стоит. Нам потребуется потратить достаточно времени и сил, чтобы набрать необходимый словарный запас, научиться анализировать тексты и отвечать на вопросы. При моей системе онлайн-подготовки к тестам IELTS у вас не может быть поводов и оправданий для плохой подготовки: вы можете практиковаться в любое время и в любом месте, где у вас есть подключение к интернет.

Пара десятков советов, которые я дам ниже, позволят вам найти правильный подход к разделу Reading теста IELTS:

  1. Вы можете существенно облегчить себе понимание текста, если перед самым началом чтения уловите хотя бы примерную суть текста. При наличии иллюстраций, графиков, таблиц к тексту, начните с их изучения - зачастую это дает четкое представление о теме текста.

  2. Сразу начинайте писать на тестовом бланке для ответов, а не в вопроснике, - следует помнить, что дополнительного времени на перенос ответов Вам никто не даст.

  3. Модуль Reading даже в Academic Module достаточно обобщен и рассчитан на людей, которые имеют широкопрофильное образование. Если у вас есть высшее или хотя бы среднее специальное образование, значит вы уже умеете работать с новой информацией. Для понимания текста IELTS по любой теме вам не потребуются специализированные знания. Тем не менее, мои ученики говорят, что статьи модуля Reading существенно варьируются по уровню сложности, - в реальности причина состоит в том, что темы некоторых текстов совпадают с темами их работы, поэтому многие факты им уже известны. Помните, что Вам необходимо ориентироваться на содержание текста, а не на собственные знания в этой области.

  4. Если вы читаете тексты IELTS и отвечаете на вопросы в хаотическом порядке (кстати говоря, очень эффективная методика, позволяющая сразу ответить на вопросы, ответы на которые вам очевидны), будьте внимательны, что ответы находятся на своем месте в таблице ответов в IELTS Answer Sheet.

  5. В случае если у вас нет совершенной уверенности в правильности вашего ответа на вопрос IELTS, Вам нужно непременно перечитать английский экзаменационный текст по-новой и найти правильный вариант. Однако если вы будете заострять свое внимание на каждом из вопросов, вызывающем у Вас сомнения, то рискуете не уложиться в отведенные вам строгие временные рамки. Помните, что на все про все в ходе модуля Reading вам отводится не более часа, за которые нужно прочитать три текста и ответить на 40 вопросов. Если вы на каждый вопрос потратите в пределах одной минуты (включая чтение текста и поиск места в тексте, содержащего ответ), то у вас останутся дополнительные 20 минут для повтроного прочтения текстов и поисков ответов на сложные вопросы. Если у вас никак не получается найти ответ на какой-то вопрос, переходите к следующему вопросу.

  6. Хотя ни один модуль кембриджского теста IELTS не содержит проверки грамматики, знание английской грамматики - ключ к успешному выполнению заданий. Подобно тактикам модуля Listening, которым я вас учил на английских онлайн уроках по подготовке к IELTS Listening онлайн, выполняя тесты модуля IELTS Reading, вы можете предугадать ответы раздела IELTS Reading, используя грамматическую конструкцию вопроса и текста для проверки правильности своего ответа. Так, например, пропущенное слово стоит после числительного и перед инфинитивом, очевидно, что правильным ответом может быть только исчисляемое нарицательное существительное во множественном числе. Посмотрите на следующий пример: Over fifteen different ... were used to increase the success rate of weather forecating. a) improvements b) balloons c) digital d) NanoTech. Очевидно, что прилагательное digital и имя собственное NanoTech (капитан Очевидность подсказывает, что это имя собственное - название какой-то конторы) никак не могут быть правильными ответами. Теперь смотрим в текст и выбираем из двух вариантов: improvements или balloons.

  7. Так же как и с модулем IELTS Listening, не нужно придумывать ответы или выстраивать сложные логические цепочки. Это в особенности относится к вопросам типа True / False/ Not Given. Ответы на все вопросы IELTS Reading находятся в тексте, не нужно никакой отсебятины и придумок.

  8. Безусловно, вопросы типа True / False/ Not Given - самые сложные типы вопросов на экзамене IELTS - это в равной степени относится и к модулю IELTS Reading и IELTS Listening - поскольку этот тип вопросов наводит кандидатов на ложный ответ или заставляют придумывать свой собственный.

  9. В тесте IELTS раздел Reading содержит вопросы со словами, которых часто нет в самом ответе - с аналогичной ловушкой мы уже встречались, когда готовились к IELTS Listening. Поэтому вам следует знать синонимы ключевых слов текста так же, как и сами ключевые слова. Очень часто в тексте использована отрицательная форма глагола: Newer compulters do not have floppy drives., в то время как в задании эта же мысль будет сформулирована как More modern devices lack flexible discs.

  10. Антонимы – слова с противоположным значением - вообще любимейшая ловушка авторов IELTS на модулях Listening и Reading. Так, например, предложения типа It wouldn't be wrong будет при определенных обстоятельствах означать правильно. Поэтому набирайте словарный запас уже здесь и сейчас на наших онлайн уроках английского языка по подготовке к IELTS!

  11. Если вы неправильно рассчитали время и очевидно не успеваете закончить ответы на все 40 вопросов IELTS Reading, вам придется угадывать некоторые ответы. Меня всегда поражало количество студентов, которые оставляют без ответа многоальтернативные вопросы (multiple choice answers) из-за того, что не знают ответ или сомневаются в правильности ответа. Если у вас есть четыре варианта ответов - A, B, C или D, - то это уже 25% вероятность того, что вы правильно ответите, даже поставив букву наобум. А если последовать моим советам выше, и исключить один-два явно негодных варианта, то свои шансы можно поднять до 33% или 50%!

  12. Если же вы не знаете ответ на вопрос типа True / False/ Not Given и хотите поставить наугад, то НЕ выбирайте вариант Not Given – это самый редкий ответ.

  13. Если контекст английского экзаменационного текста, который вам попался на IELTS Reading, имеет специфический характер (например, разработка чипов для компьютера), то не думайте, что вы ничего ни в зуб новой в предмете разговора, но не сможете дать ответ. Практика показывает, что как раз наоборот: чем специализированее тема, тем больше фактов и прямой информации содержит сам текст. Это позволяет всем без исключения найти правильный ответ.

  14. Некоторые экзаменационные тексты IELTS модуля Reading могут содержать скрытые точки зрения. Вы должны быть очень внимательны к фразам и целым абзацам, начинающимся с фраз типа While it can be argued that... НЕ высказывают мнения автора текста и зачастую являются выражением мыслей третьей стороны. Т.е. если ответ на вопрос содержится только в предложениях с такими вводными фразами, его нельзя использовать для ответа - правильным ответом будет Not Given.

  15. Вам может попасться экзаменационный текст IELTS с длинными и сложными словами. У многих возникает желание пропустить эти слова и понять общий смысл экзаменационного IELTS текста без них. Однако часто эти слова передают ключевое значение текста и таким образом – это индикаторы ответов. Однако эти хитрые слова не являются вовсе никакими индикаторами ответов также часто не несут никакого смыслового значения: это прилагательные или наречия, которые дополняют описание, нежели смысл. Если вы начнете зацикливаться на неизвестных словах, вы потеряете время. Игнорируйте слишком сложные слова. Попробуйте следующее в качестве тренировки: возьмите англоязычную газету и отыщите статью с множеством неизвестных слов. Вычеркните все эти слова, а затем прочитайте статью и посмотрите, понимаете ли вы ее. Большая вероятность, что да.

  16. Если ваш текст IELTS содержит множество дат, статистических данных, каких-либо иных характеристик (масса, длина и т.д.) то отмечайте их по мере прочтения, поскольку они несут важную информацию и, с высокой вероятностью, потребуются Вам при ответе на вопросы. Если вы их выделите сразу при чтении, то впоследствии сможете легко их отыскать, сэкономив драгоценное время.

  17. Аналогично поступаем с именами собственными - даже если в тексте и немного собственных существительных, не ленитесь их выделять, - это существенно облегчит вам дальнейший поиск.

  18. Не бойтесь писать на бланке с вопросами - это нормально, правда, помните, что Question Sheet нужно обязательно сдать в конце экзамена IELTS. Выносить какие-либо материалы с экзамена категорически запрещено - это грозит аннулированием результатов всего теста IELTS.

  19. Самый важный совет по подготовке к IELTS Reading - посещайте как можно больше английских онлайн уроков, на которым мы готовимся к IELTS, а также как можно больше онлайн уроков английского языка по развитию навыков чтения, особенно когда мы читаем научно-популярные книжки. Активно участвуйте в онлайн уроках, изучайте структуру английских предложений, знаки препинания в английском языке, а, главное, старайтесь понять идею написанного. Посмотрите на часть английского текста еще до урока и напишите несколько предположений про последующий контекст. Потом проверьте истинность ваших догадок.

  20. Если время действительно поджимает, то оставьте на самый конец все вопросы типа True / False/ Not Given, а также многоальтернативные вопросы (multiple choice questions), поскольку для ответа на них вам не нужно что-либо по-новой перечитывать экзаменационные тексты IELTS Reading.

Beneath the Canopy

Задание No 1 – Questions 16-26

You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 16-26:

  1. The world's tropical rainforests comprise some 6% of the Earth's land area and contain more than half of all known life forms, or a conservative estimate of about 30 million species of plants and animals. Some experts estimate there could be two or even three times as many species hidden within these complex and fast disappearing ecosystems; scientists will probably never know for certain, so vast is the amount of study required.

  2. Time is running out for biological research. Commercial development is responsible for the loss of about 17 million hectares of virgin rainforest each year - a figure approximating 1% of what remains of the world's rainforests.

  3. The current devastation of once impenetrable rainforest is of particular concern because, although new tree growth may in time repopulate felled areas, the biologically diverse storehouse of flora and fauna is gone forever. Losing this bountiful inheritance, which took millions of years to reach its present highly evolved state, would be an unparalleled act of human stupidity.

  4. Chemical compounds that might be extracted from yet-to-be-discovered species hidden beneath the tree canopy could assist in the treatment of disease or help to control fertility. Conservationists point out that important medical discoveries have already been made from material found in tropical rainforests. The drug aspirin, now synthesised, was originally found in the bark of a rainforest tree. Two of the most potent anti-cancer drugs derive from the rosy periwinkle discovered in the 1950s in the tropical rainforests of Madagascar.

  5. The rewards of discovery are potentially enormous, yet the outlook is bleak. Timber-rich countries mired in debt, view potential financial gain decades into the future as less attractive than short-term profit from logging. Cataloguing species and analysing newly-found substances takes time and money, both of which are in short supply.

  6. The developed world takes every opportunity to lecture countries which are the guardians of rainforest. Rich nations exhort them to preserve and care for what is left, ignoring the fact that their wealth was in large part due to the exploitation of their own natural world.

  7. It is often forgotten that forests once covered most of Europe. Large tracts of forest were destroyed over the centuries for the same reason that the remaining rainforests are now being felled - timber. As well as providing material for housing, it enabled wealthy nations to build large navies and shipping fleets with which to continue their plunder of the world's resources.

  8. Besides, it is not clear that developing countries would necessarily benefit financially from extended bioprospecting of their rainforests. Pharmaceutical companies make huge profits from the sale of drugs with little return to the country in which an original discovery was made.

  9. Also, cataloguing tropical biodiversity involves much more than a search for medically useful and therefore commercially viable drugs. Painstaking biological fieldwork helps to build immense databases of genetic, chemical and behavioural information that will be of benefit only to those countries developed enough to use them.

  10. Reckless logging itself is not the only danger to rainforests. Fires lit to clear land for further logging and for housing and agricultural development played havoc in the late 1990s in the forests of Borneo. Massive clouds of smoke from burning forest fires swept across the southernmost countries of South-East Asia choking cities and reminding even the most resolute advocates of rainforest clearing of the swiftness of nature's retribution.

  11. Nor are the dangers entirely to the rainforests themselves. Until very recently, so-called "lost" tribes - indigenous peoples who have had no contact with the outside world - still existed deep within certain rainforests. It is now unlikely that there are any more truly lost tribes. Contact with the modern world inevitably brings with it exploitation, loss of traditional culture, and, in an alarming number of instances, complete obliteration.

  12. Forest-dwellers who have managed to live in harmony with their environment have much to teach us of life beneath the tree canopy. If we do not listen, the impact will be on the entire human race. Loss of biodiversity, coupled with climate change and ecological destruction will have profound and lasting consequences.

Задание No 2 – Questions 16-20

You are advised to spend about 8 minutes on Questions 16-20.

Refer to Reading Passage 2 "Beneath the Canopy" and answer the following questions. The lefthand column contains quotations taken directly from the reading passage. The right-hand column contains explanations of those quotations. Match each quotation with the correct explanation. Select from the choices A-F below and write your answers in boxes 16-20 on your Answer Sheet. The first one has been done for you as an example:

Example: a conservative estimate

Answer: B

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Задание No 3 – Questions 21-23

You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 21-23. Refer to Reading Passage 2, and look at Questions 21-23 below. Write your answers in boxes 21-23 on your Answer Sheet:

  1. How many medical drug discoveries does the article mention? ...
  2. What two shortages are given as the reason for the writer's pessimistic outlook? ...
  3. Who will most likely benefit from the bioprospecting of developing countries' rainforests? ...

Задание No 4 – Questions 24-26

You are advised to spend about 7 minutes on Questions 24-26. Refer to Reading Passage 2, and decide which of the answers best completes the following sentences. Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your Answer Sheet:

  1. The amount of rainforest destroyed annually is:
  2. a) approximately 6% of the Earth's land area
    b) such that it will only take 100 years to lose all the forests
    c) increasing at an alarming rate
    d) responsible for commercial development

  3. In Borneo in the late 1990s:
  4. a) burning forest fires caused air pollution problems as far away as Europe
    b) reckless logging resulted from burning forest fires
    c) fires were lit to play the game of havoc
    d) none of the above

  5. Many so-called "lost" tribes of certain rainforests:
  6. a) have been destroyed by contact with the modern world b) do not know how to exploit the rainforest without causing harm to the environment c) are still lost inside the rainforest d) must listen or they will impact on the entire human race

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