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Английская фонетика онлайн для начинающих. Английская фонетика правила чтения гласной E в открытом ударном слоге
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Английская фонетика онлайн для начинающих. Английская фонетика правила чтения гласной E в открытом ударном слоге

Добрый день, меня зовут Игорь Игоревич Хохлов, я репетитор английского по скайпу, и на нашем сегодняшнем уроке мы будем изучать английскую фонетику онлайн. Для начала расскажу, как правильно подготовиться к занятию по теме Английская фонетика правила чтения: на этой странице вы видите лишь список слов, чтение которых мы будет отрабатывать на онлайн уроке. Вам необходимо повторить правила чтения английской фонетики, произношение английских букв и буквосочетаний, скачав и прослушав аудиофайл, который находится ниже. Вы также можете перейти в раздел Английская фонетика онлайн на моем сайте и скачать материалы всего фонетического курса целиком.

Английская фонетика онлайн - таблица и правила чтения скачать бесплатно mp3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Так как наш сегодняшний урок по английской фонетике онлайн включает упражнения и практические задания на отработку правил чтения букв и буквосочетаний, но нам потребуется английская фонетическая транскрипция для обозначения звуков. Чтобы значки английской фонетической транскрипции корректно отображались в вашем браузере, а также в других приложениях Windows, вам потребуется установить английский фонетический шрифт Phonetic TM.

Для установки на свой компьютер шрифта английской фонетической транскрипции, нажмите на ссылку слева правой кнопкой мыши, далее выберите функцию Сохранить объект как... и в открывшемся окне нажмите кнопку Меню. После этого откройте на компьютере следующее меню: Пуск -> Панель управления -> Шрифты -> Файл -> Установить шрифт - далее открываете папку, в которую сохранили шрифт и нажимаете на кнопочку Установить. После этого перезагружаете свой браузер и, о чудо! - все знаки английской фонетической транскрипции отобразятся привычным образом!

Английская фонетика онлайн для начинающих - таблица и правила чтения

Наш сегодняшний урок по английской фонетике онлайн будет посвящен отработке правил чтения долгого гласного звука [i:] в английском языке; наше занятие является частью большого курса Английская фонетика правила чтения, который мы проходим на разговорных уроках английского языка через Skype. Основная цель курса английской фонетики онлайн состоит в том, чтобы быстро и эффективно научить вас правильно читать английские буквы, буквосочетания, слова и предложения.

Конечно, английская фонетика - это не только правила чтения, однако без понимания основных принципов произношения звуков мы не сможем перейти к следующим этапам обучения. Поэтому для начала мы с вами узнаем, что это за зверь такой - английская фонетика для начинающих, затем изучим теоретическую фонетику английского языка, проработаем правила чтения английских буквосочетаний и выполним фонетические упражнения.

Основной задачей раздела Английская фонетика правила чтения является приобретение умения правильно произносить английские слова и предложения, а также развитие способностей слышать и понимать речь носителей языка в реальном разговорном темпе в разных диалектах: британском, американском, австралийском и других.

В ходе курса английской фонетики онлайн я просто и ясно расскажу о правилах английского произношения, что позволит как можно быстрее перейти к практическим занятиям и разговорной практике, но вам нужно иметь в виду, что даже для освоения начальных навыков в рамках курса Английская фонетика правила чтения нам потребуется выучить, как произносятся и артикулируются отдельные звуки, а также слова, в которых они используются.

Нам также будет нужно уже на первых занятиях научиться правильно интонационно оформлять английские предложения, выделять ударные и безударные члены предложения, а также освоить многие другие фонетические особенности английского языка, которые были проигнорированы вами при предыдущих попытках выучить язык в школе, институте, на курсах или с репетитором.

Фонетический курс английского языка для начинающих. Упражнения по английской фонетике онлайн

Упражнения по фонетике английского языка, который мы выполняем на онлайн урока английского языка по скайпу, составляют большую часть моего курса, так как никакие знания, полученные в ходе фонетического курса английского языке не будут иметь ценности без выработки практических навыков разговора с правильным использованием артикуляционного аппарата. Для выработки у вас мышечной памяти на правильную артикуляцию звуков, мой курс английской фонетики онлайн по большей части состоит из упражнений и онлайн тестов, полностью озвученных носителями языка, которые позволят вам привыкнуть к как к британскому, так и американскому произношению.

Я хочу еще до начала нашего сегодняшнего урока поговорить с вами о том, почему английская фонетика онлайн представляет столь серьезную трудность на начальной стадии изучения английского языка, и почему на наших онлайн уроках английского с репетитором по Skype именно фонетический курс английского языка занимает столь значительную часть сил и времени.

Тем, кто только начал изучать английскую фонетику онлайн, часто кажется, что правила чтения в английском языке почти не проявляют себя, а в отношении часто встречающихся и наиболее нужных слов, которые входят в тесты по упражнениям по английской фонетике, правил чтения будто вовсе не существуют!

Английская фонетика онлайн и правила чтения английских слов

Основную проблему в выполнении упражнений на английскую фонетику онлайн представляют существенные различия между тем, как слово пишется, и тем, как оно читается - такого рода разночтения между письмом и произношением вызваны консерватизмом, присущим английской орфографии, то есть правилам написания слов.

В ходе исторической эволюции языка, что современные английские слова пишутся согласно правилам чтения полутысячелетней давности. А вот разговорный английский язык, который мы изучаем на онлайн уроках по скайпу, является очень живой и подвижной формой, поэтому фонетика английского языка (в отличие от орфографии) меняется стремительно.

По этой самой причине уже на первоначальном этапе обучения по курсу английская фонетика для начинающих мы будем заучивать произношение английских слов на слух, копируя носителей английского языка, - со временем вы поднакопите опыт в правилах чтения английских слов и выработаете интуицию в том, что касается правил чтения английской фонетики.

Протяжный полупротяжный и сокращенный долгий гласный звук [i:] в фонетике английского языка: основной случай чтения гласной буквы E в открытом ударном слоге

а) протяжный - bee [bJ] - пчела; key [kJ] - ключ; spree [sprJ] - активная деятельность, бум;

б) полупротяжный – ease [Jz] - расслабленное состояние, geese [gJz] - гуси, лохи, keen [kJn] - острый, язвительный;

в) сокращенный - meat [mJt] - мясо, beach [bJC] - пляж, peach [pJC] - персик.

seat [sJt] - место;

please [plJz] - пожалуйста;

repeat [rI'pJt] - повторять;

see [sJ] - видеть;

street [strJt] - улица;

need [nJd] - нуждаться, нужда;

between [bI'twJn] - между двумя;

people ['pJpl] - народ, люди;

me [mJ] - меня, мне;

we [wJ] - мы;

theme [TJm] - тема;

genius ['GJnjqs] - гений;

complete [kqm'plJt] - полный;

eat [Jt] - есть;

easy ['JzI] - легкий;

sea [sJ] - море.

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Английский онлайн - английская медицинская терминология. Медицинская терминология для врачей, изучающих английский язык, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time
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Английский онлайн - английская медицинская терминология. Медицинская терминология для врачей, изучающих английский язык, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time

ВАЖНО! К практическим урокам в рамках курса Английский язык для врачей не существует аудиозаписей - вся работа ведется с учениками вживую прямо на онлайн уроке!

английский язык онлайн для врачей и медиков english online

Chapter 8: Ways of Getting Affection and Sensitivity to Rejection

In contemplating how badly such neurotic persons need affection, but how difficult it is for them to accept it, one might assume that these persons would thrive best in an emotional atmosphere of moderate temperature. But here another complication enters: they are at the same time painfully sensitive to any rejection or rebuff, however slight. And a moderate atmosphere, although in one way reassuring, is felt as a rebuff.

It is difficult to describe the degree of their sensitivity to rejection. Change in an appointment, having to wait, failure to receive an immediate response, disagreement with their opinions, any non-compliance with their wishes, in short, any failure to fulfill their demands on their own terms, is felt as a rebuff. And a rebuff not only throws them back on their basic anxiety, but is also considered equivalent to humiliation. I shall explain later why they feel it as a humiliation. Because a rebuff does have this content of humiliation it arouses a tremendous rage, which may emerge into the open; for example, a girl whose cat was not responsive to her caresses became furious and threw the cat against the wall. If they are made to wait they interpret it as being considered so insignificant that it is not necessary to be punctual with them; and this may stimulate outbreaks of hostility or result in a complete withdrawal of all feelings, so that they are cold and unresponsive, even though, a few minutes before, they may have been looking forward eagerly to the meeting.

More often the connection between feeling rebuffed and feeling irritated remains unconscious. This happens all the more easily since the rebuff may have been so slight as to escape conscious awareness. Then a person will feel irritable, or become spiteful and vindictive or feel fatigued or depressed or have a headache, without the remotest suspicion why. Moreover, the hostile reaction may occur not only to a rejection, or to what is felt to be a rejection, but also to the anticipation of a rejection. A person may, for example, ask a question angrily, because in his mind he has already anticipated a refusal. He may refrain from sending flowers to his girl, because he anticipates her sensing ulterior motives in the gift. He may for the same reason be extremely afraid of expressing any positive feeling, a fondness, a gratitude, an appreciation, and thereby appear to himself and others colder and more hard-boiled than he really is. Or he may scoff at women, thus taking revenge for an anticipated rebuff.

The fear of rejection, if strongly developed, may lead a person to avoid exposing himself to any possibility of denial. This avoidance may extend from not asking for matches when buying cigarettes to not asking for a job. Persons who fear any possible rejection will avoid making advances to a man or woman whom they like, as long as they are not absolutely certain of not meeting with a rejection. Men of this type usually resent having to ask girls for a dance, because they are afraid the girl may accept only for the sake of being polite; and they think women are much better off in this regard, because they need not take the initiative.

In other words, the fear of rebuff may lead to a series of severe inhibitions falling in the category of timidity. The timidity serves as a defense against exposing one's self to rebuff. The conviction of being unlovable is used as the same kind of defense. It is as if persons of this type said to themselves, "People do not like me anyhow, so I had better stay in the corner, and thereby protect myself against any possible rejection." The fear of rebuff is thus a grave handicap to the wish for affection, because it prevents a person from letting others feel or know that he would like to have some attention. Moreover the hostility provoked by a feeling of being rebuffed contributes a great deal toward keeping the anxiety alert or even reinforcing it. It is an important factor in establishing a "vicious circle" which is difficult to escape from.

This vicious circle formed by the various implications of the neurotic need for affection may be roughly schematized as follows: anxiety; excessive need for affection, including demands for exclusive and unconditional love; a feeling of rebuff if these demands are not fulfilled ; reaction to the rebuff with intense hostility; need to repress the hostility because of fear of losing the affection; the tension of a diffuse rage; increased anxiety ; increased need for reassurance. Thus the very means which serve to reassure against anxiety create in turn new hostility and new anxiety.

The formation of a vicious circle is typical not only in the context in which it has been discussed here; generally speaking it is one of the most important processes in neuroses. Any protective device may have, in addition to its reassuring quality, the quality of creating new anxiety. A person may take to drinking in order to allay his anxiety, and then get the fear that drinking, too, will harm him. Or he may masturbate in order to release his anxiety, and then become afraid that masturbation will make him ill. Or he may undergo some treatment for his anxiety, and soon grow apprehensive lest the treatment harm him. The formation of vicious circles is the main reason why severe neuroses are bound to become worse, even though there is no change in external conditions. Uncovering the vicious circles, with all their implications, is one of the important tasks of psychoanalysis. The neurotic himself cannot grasp them. He notices their results only in the form of a feeling that he is trapped in a hopeless situation. This feeling of being trapped is his response to entanglements which he cannot break through. Any way that seems to lead out drags him again into new dangers.

The question arises as to what ways are open, despite all the internal difficulties, for the neurotic to obtain the affection he is determined to have. There are really two problems to be solved: first, how to obtain the necessary affection; and second, how to justify to himself and to others the demand for it. We may roughly describe the various possible means of getting affection as: bribery; an appeal to pity; an appeal to justice; and finally threats. Such a classification, of course, like all such enumerations of psychological factors, is not rigidly categorical but is only an indication of general trends. These various means are not mutually exclusive. Several of them may be employed simultaneously or in alternation, depending on the situation as well as on the entire character structure, and depending on the degree of hostility. In fact the sequence in which these four means of obtaining affection are cited indicates an increasing degree of hostility.

When a neurotic attempts to obtain affection by bribery his motto could be described as, "I love you dearly; therefore you should love me in return, and give up everything for the sake of my love." The fact that in our culture such tactics are employed more frequently by women than by men is a result of the conditions under which women have lived. For centuries love has not only been women's special domain in life, but in fact has been the only or main gateway through which they could attain what they desired. While men grew up with the conviction that they had to achieve something in life if they wanted to get somewhere, women realized that through love, and through love alone, could they attain happiness, security and prestige. This difference in cultural positions has had a momentous influence on the psychic development of man and woman. It would be inopportune to discuss this influence in the present context, but one of its consequences is that in neuroses women more frequently than men will use love as a strategy. And at the same time the subjective conviction of love serves as a justification for making the demands.

Persons of this type are in a particular danger of falling into a painful dependency in their love relationships. Assume, for example, that a woman with a neurotic need for affection clings to a man of a similar type, who withdraws, however, as soon as she approaches him; the woman reacts to such rejection with intense hostility, which she represses for fear of losing him. If she tries to withdraw herself he will again start to court her favor. She then not only represses her hostility but covers it up with an intensified devotion. She will again be rejected and again react, eventually with enhanced love. Thus she will gradually become convinced that she is possessed by an unconquerable "grand passion."

Another device that may be considered a form of bribery is the attempt to win affection by understanding u person, helping him in his mental or professional development, straightening out his difficulties, and the like. This is in common use by both men and women.

A second means of obtaining affection is by appealing to pity. The neurotic will bring his suffering and helplessness to the attention of others, the motto here being, "You ought to love me because I suffer and am helpless." At the same time the suffering serves as justification for the right to make excessive demands.

Sometimes such an appeal will be made quite openly. A patient will point out that he is the sickest patient and therefore has the greatest right to the analyst's attention. He may be scornful of other patients who present a surface appearance of better health. And he resents other persons who are more successful than he in using this strategy.

In appealing to pity more or less hostility may be intermingled. The neurotic may make a simple appeal to our good nature, or he may extort favors by radical means, as by involving himself in a disastrous situation which compels our assistance. Everyone who has had anything to do with neurotics in social or medical work knows the importance of this strategy. There is a great difference between the neurotic who explains his predicament in a matter-of-fact way, and the one who tries to arouse pity by a dramatic demonstration of his complaints. We may find the same trends in children of all ages, with the same variations: the child may either want to be consoled for some complaint or may try to extort attention by unconsciously developing a situation terrifying to the parents, such as an inability to eat or to urinate.

The use of the appeal to pity presupposes a conviction of inability to obtain love in any other manner. This conviction may be rationalized as a general disbelief in affection, or it may take the form of a belief that in the particular situation affection cannot be had in any other way.

In the third means of obtaining affection - the appeal to justice - the motto can be described as: "This I have done for you; what will you do for me?" In our culture mothers will often point out that they have done so much for their children that they are entitled to unflagging devotion. In love relations the fact of having yielded to wooing may be used as a basis for claims. Persons of this type are often overready to do things for others, with the secret expectation that they will receive in return everything they wish, and they are seriously disappointed if the others are not equally willing to do something for them. I am referring here not to persons who are consciously calculating, but to those to whom any conscious expectation of a possible reward is entirely foreign. Their compulsive generosity can perhaps more accurately be described as a magic gesture. They do to others what they want others to do to them. It is the inordinately sharp sting of disappointment which indicates that expectations of a return were factually at work. Sometimes they keep a sort of mental bookkeeping account, in which they give themselves inordinate credit for sacrifices that are really useless, such as lying awake all night, but minimize or even ignore what has been done for them, thus so falsifying the situation that they feel entitled to demand special attention. This attitude leads to repercussions on the neurotic himself, for he may become extremely afraid of incurring obligations. Instinctively judging others by himself, he fears that others might exploit him if he accepted any favors from them.

The appeal to justice may also be put on the basis of what the neurotic would be willing to do for others if he had the opportunity. He will point out how loving or self-sacrificing he would be if he were in the other's position, and he feels that his demands are justified by the fact that he asks no more from others than he would do himself. In reality the psychology of such justification is more intricate than the neurotic himself realizes. This picture he has of his own qualities is mainly his unconscious arrogation to himself of the kind of conduct he would demand of others. It is not altogether a deception, however, for he has in truth certain self-sacrificing tendencies, arising from such sources as his lack of self-assertion, his identification with the underdog, his impulse to be as indulgent to others as he would have them be to him.

The hostility that may be present in the appeal to justice appears most clearly when the demands are put on the basis of reparation for an alleged injury. The motto is: "You have made me suffer or have damaged me, and therefore you are obliged to help me, take care of me, or support me." This strategy is analogous to the one employed in traumatic neuroses. I have no personal experience with traumatic neuroses, but I wonder whether persons acquiring a traumatic neurosis do not belong.in this category and use the injury as basis for demands which they would be inclined to make in any event.

I shall cite a few examples which show how a neurotic may arouse feelings of guilt or obligation in order that his own demands may seem just. A wife becomes ill in reaction to a disloyalty of her husband. She does not express any reproach, perhaps does not even consciously feel it, but her illness is implicitly a kind of living reproach, intended to arouse guilt feelings in her husband and to make him willing to devote all his attention to her.

Another neurotic of this kind, a woman with obsessive and hysterical symptoms, would sometimes insist on helping her sisters with the housework. After a day or two she would unconsciously resent bitterly the fact that they had accepted her help and would have to lie down, with an increase of symptoms, thus forcing the sisters not only to manage without her but to have the increased work of taking care of her. Again, the impairment of her condition expressed an accusation and led to demanding reparations from others. The same person once fainted when one of her sisters criticized her, thus demonstrating her resentment and extorting sympathetic treatment.

One patient of mine, at a certain period of her analysis, became worse and worse, and developed the fantasy that the analysis would leave her a wreck in addition to robbing her of all her funds, and that therefore in the future I should be obliged to take complete care of her. Reactions of this kind are frequent in every kind of medical treatment, and are often accompanied by open threats to the physician. In minor degrees occurrences like the following are common: the patient's condition shows a marked impairment when the analyst goes on a holiday; implicitly or explicitly he would assert that it is the analyst's fault that he has become worse and that therefore he has a special claim on the analyst's attention. This example may easily be translated into the experiences of everyday life.

As these examples indicate, neurotic persons of this kind may be willing to pay the price of suffering - even intense suffering - because in that way they are able to express accusations and demands without being aware of doing so, and hence are able to retain their feeling of righteousness.

When a person uses threats as a strategy for obtaining affection he may threaten injury either to himself or to the other. He will threaten some kind of desperate act, such as ruining a reputation or doing violence to another or to himself. Threats of suicide, or even attempts at suicide, are a familiar example. One patient of mine obtained two successive husbands by this threat. When the first man gave indications of being about to withdraw, she jumped into a river in a crowded and conspicuous part of the city; when the second seemed reluctant to marry, she opened the gas, at a time when she was sure of being discovered. Her manifest intention was to demonstrate that she could not live without the particular man.

Since a neurotic hopes, by his threats, to obtain acquiescence to his demands, he will not carry them out as long as he has hopes of achieving this end. If he loses this hope he may carry them out under the stress of despair and vindictiveness.

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