Дневной обзор:
| Пятница 22 Март 2013 |
Общее событие
Разговорная практика на английском языке для начинающих. Фонетика в английском языке для новичков. Как лучше изучать английский язык для начинающих?
12:00 » 22:00
 

Разговорная практика на английском языке для начинающих. Фонетика в английском языке для новичков. Как лучше изучать английский язык для начинающих?

Наш сегодняшний урок - это подготовительный этап к разговорной практике на английском языке, занятие будет проходит вживую и не будет записано, однако учебные материалы для занятий английским языком онлайн Вы можете скачать по ссылкам ниже - это поможет Вам подготовиться к уроку или, если Вы пропустили занятие английским языком онлайн, прослушать объяснение и подкаст, начитанный носителями языка, позже.

Разговорная практика на английском языке: правила чтения английского алфавита, как читаются английские буквы?

Аудиокурс английский язык для начинающих - слушать бесплатно онлайн или скачать MP3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Английская фонетика онлайн: второй урок на английский фонетический алфавит, как произносятся буквы в английском языке?

Правила чтения английского алфавита, как читаются английские буквы - скачать бесплатно онлайн(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Английская фонетика онлайн: третий урок на котором мы узнаем, как читаются буквы в английском языке

Разговорная практика на английском языке - слушать бесплатно онлайн или скачать MP3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Закрепить изученный на сегодняшнем уроке материал Вам помогут разговорная практика на английском языке также помогут и онлайн тесты по английскому языку в фонетической секции моего сайта английский онлайн.

Разговорная практика на английском языке для новичков

Занятия в рамках моего Разговорная практика на английском языке проводятся для учащихся всех уровней обучеия: от начинающих с полного нуля до Upper-Intermediate и Advanced.

Однако я знаю, что многие из Вас зашли на эту страницу впервые в поисках учебных материалов и не знакомы с моей системой обучения английскому языку онлайн, однако я уверен, что Вам нужна именно разговорная практика на английском языке, поэтому я скажу пару слов о моих уроках английского языка по скайпу. Материалы, которые Вы видите на этой странице, предназначены для уроков английского языка онлайн, которые я провожу семь дней в неделю без выходных и празников с утра до ночи для своих учеников.

Английский язык по скайпу - эффективна ли такая разговорная практика на английском языке

Английский язык по скайпу - это интенсивная разговорная практика на английском языке и очень удобный формат занятий для тех, кому нужно быстро набрать навыки общения, но на регулярные занятия с репетитором английского катастрофически не хватает времени.

Эффективность занятий по Скайп или в онлайн классе (для разговорной практики на английском языке я предпочитаю именно онлайн класс, так как в нем удобнее организовать общение и показ материалов одновременно) ничем не уступает в эффективности очным уроках английского языка в Москве.

Составляющие эффективной практики разговорного английского по Skype те же самые, что и в очном классе: преподаватель английского высокой квалификации, индивидуально подобранная качественная методика обучения и оптимальная организация учебного процесса. В этом плане практика разговорного английского по Skype ничем не отличается от обычных индивидуальных уроков английского языка.

Практика разговорного английского по Skype

При этом, изучая английский язык для начинающих, и делая выбор в пользу практики разговорного английского по Skype или даже полного онлайн курса обучения английскому языку Skype, Вы экономите массу времени на дорогу на курсы английского языка и обратно, а также деньги, которые можно потратить на поездки заграницу для разговорной практики с носителями. Английский язык для начинающих - это прекрасная возможность заниматься с лучшим преподавателем английского языка онлайн, программа которого подходит именно Вам.

Я уверен, что сказанного мной более чем достаточно, чтобы убедить Вас в том, что английский язык для начинающих лучше всего изучать по Skype - это прекрасная возможность освоить навыки разговорного общения на английском языке в кратчайшие сроки.

Как правило, вместо Skype я использую еще более удобную форму преподавания английского языка для начинающих - онлайн класс, который загружается прямо в браузере. Заходите в онлайн класс английского языка по ссылке, которую Вы видите ниже, и послушайте, как проходят уроки английского языка онлайн на моем сайте.

Нажмите на ссылку и войдите в онлайн класс английского языка

Английская фонетика онлайн - правила чтения английских букв и звуков

Английский язык для начинающих невозможен без изучения основы языка - английской фонетики, правил чтения букв, звуков и слов. На сегодняшнем уроке английской фонетики онлайн мы с Вами узнаем, как читаются английские буквы в обычно и фонетическом алфавитах. Также мы на практике разберем основные правила чтение долгих гласных звуков в английском языке в сочетании со звонкими, глухими и непарными согласными, а также другими гласными. Также на нашем уроке английского языка для начинающих я расскажу Вам, как обозначаются долгие гласные звуки в транскрипции и орфографии. Мы изучим практическое чтение слов и словосочетаний.

ВНИМАНИЕ! Для того, чтобы знаки фонетической транскрипции правильно отображались на этой странице, а также в других приложениях Windows, Вам нужно установить фонетический шрифт Phonetic TM: правая кнопка мыши - Cохранить объект как... - в открывшемся окне нажать "Сохранить"; Меню "Пуск" - Панель управления - папка "Шрифты" - меню "Файл" - Установить шрифт - открываете папку, в которую сохранили шрифт и нажимаете "Установить"

A Alpha ['xlfq]

B Bravo ['brR'vqu]

C Charlie ['CRlJ]

D Delta ['deltq]

E Echo ['ekqu]

F Foxtrot ['fOkstrOt]

G Golf [gOlf]

H Hotel [hqu'tel]

I India ['Indjq]

J Juliet ['GHljqt]

K Kilo ['kJlqu]

L Lima ['lJmq]

M Mike [maIk]

N November [nqu'vembq]

O Oscar ['Oskq]

P Papa [pq'pR]

Q Quebec [kwI'bek]

R Romeo ['rqumIqu]

S Sierra ['sIqrq]

T Tango ['txNgqu]

U Uniform ['jHnIfLm]

V Victor ['vIktq]

W Whiskey ['wIskI]

X X-ray ['eksreI]

Y Yankee ['jxNkI]

Z Zulu ['zHlH]

Общее событие
Английский онлайн - английская медицинская лексика. Медицинская лексика для врачей, изучающих английский язык, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time
14:00 » 17:00
 

Английский онлайн - английская медицинская лексика. Медицинская лексика для врачей, изучающих английский язык, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time

ВАЖНО! К практическим урокам в рамках курса Английский язык для врачей не существует аудиозаписей - вся работа ведется с учениками вживую прямо на онлайн уроке!

английский язык онлайн для врачей и медиков english online

Chapter 5: The Basic Structure of Neuroses

An anxiety may be fully accounted for by the actual conflict situation. If, however, we find an anxiety-creating situation in a character neurosis we always have to reckon with previously existing anxieties in order to explain why in that particular instance hostility arose and was repressed. We shall find then that this previous anxiety was in turn the result of a pre-existing hostility, and so on. In order to understand how the whole development started we have to go back to childhood.

This will be one of the few occasions on which I deal with the question of childhood experiences. The reason why I shall make less reference to childhood than is customary in psychoanalytical literature is not that I think the experiences of childhood are less significant than do other psychoanalytical writers, but that in this book I am dealing with the actual structure of the neurotic personality rather than with the individual experiences leading up to it. In examining the childhood histories of great numbers of neurotic persons I have found that the common denominator in all of them is an environment showing the following characteristics in various combinations.

The basic evil is invariably a lack of genuine warmth and affection. A child can stand a great deal of what is often regarded as traumatic - such as sudden weaning, occasional beating, sex experiences - as long as inwardly he feels wanted and loved. Needless to say, a child feels keenly whether love is genuine, and cannot be fooled by any faked demonstrations. The main reason why a child does not receive enough warmth and affection lies in the parents' incapacity to give it on account of their own neuroses. More frequently than not, in my experience, the essential lack of warmth is camouflaged, and the parents claim to have in mind the child's best interest. Educational theories, oversolicitude or the self-sacrificing attitude of an "ideal" mother are the basic factors contributing to an atmosphere that more than anything else lays the cornerstone for future feelings of immense insecurity.

Furthermore, we find various actions or attitudes on the part of the parents that cannot but arouse hostility, such as preference for other children, unjust reproaches, unpredictable changes between overindulgence and scornful rejection, unfulfilled promises, and not least important, an attitude toward the child's needs, which goes through all gradations from temporary inconsideration to a consistent interfering with the most legitimate wishes of the child, such as disturbing friendships, ridiculing independent thinking, spoiling its interest in its own pursuits, whether artistic, athletic or mechanical - altogether an attitude of the parents, which if not in intention nevertheless in effect means breaking the child's will.

In psychoanalytic literature concerning the factors that arouse a child's hostility the main emphasis is placed on frustration of the child's wishes, particularly those in the sexual sphere, and on jealousy. It is possible that infantile hostility arises in part because of the forbidding cultural attitude toward pleasure in general and infantile sexuality in particular, whether the latter concerns sexual curiosity, masturbation or sexual games with other children. But frustration is certainly not the only source of a rebellious hostility. Observation shows beyond any doubt that children, as well as adults, can accept a great many deprivations if they feel the deprivations to be just, fair, necessary or purposeful. A child does not mind education for cleanliness, for example, if the parents do not put an undue stress on it and do not coerce the child with subtle or gross cruelty. Nor does a child mind an occasional punishment, provided it feels certain in general of being loved and provided it feels the punishment to be fair and not done with the intention of hurting it or humiliating it. The question of whether frustration as such incites to hostility is difficult to judge, because in surroundings, which impose many deprivations on a child plenty of other provocative factors are usually present. What matters is the spirit in which frustrations are imposed rather than the frustrations themselves.

The reason I stress this point is that the emphasis often placed on the danger of frustration as such has led many parents to carry the idea still farther than did Freud himself and to shrink from any interference with the child lest he might be harmed by it.

Jealousy can certainly be a source of formidable hatred in children as well as in adults. There is no doubt about the role that jealousy between siblings and jealousy of one or the other parent may play in neurotic children, or about the lasting influence this attitude may have for later life. The question does arise, however, as to the conditions which generate this jealousy. Are jealous reactions as they are observed in sibling rivalry and in the Oedipus complex bound to arise in every child, or are they provoked by definite conditions.

Freud's observations concerning the Oedipus complex were made on neurotic persons. In them he found that high-pitched jealousy reactions concerning one of the parents were sufficiently destructive in kind to arouse fear and likely to exert lasting disturbing influences on character formation and personal relations. Observing this phenomenon frequently in neurotic per sons of our time, he assumed it to be universal. Not only did he assume the Oedipus complex to be the very kernel of neuroses, but also he tried to understand complex phenomena in other cultures on this basis. It is this generalization that is doubtful. Some jealousy reactions do arise easily in our culture in the relations between siblings as well as in those between parents and children, as they occur in every group living closely together. But there is no evidence that destructive and lasting jealousy reactions - and it is these we think of when talking of the Oedipus complex or of sibling rivalry - are in our culture, not to speak of other cultures, so common as Freud assumes. They are in general human reactions but are artificially generated through the atmosphere in which a child grows up.

Which factors in detail are responsible for generating jealousy we shall understand later when discussing the general implications of neurotic jealousy. Suffice it to mention here the lack of warmth and the spirit of competitiveness, which contribute to this result. Besides, neurotic parents who create the kind of atmosphere we have discussed are usually discontented with their lives, have no satisfactory emotional or sexual relations and hence are inclined to make children the objects of their love. They loose their need for affection on the children. Their expression of affection has not always a sexual coloring, but at any rate it is highly charged emotionally. I doubt very much that the sexual undercurrents in the child's relations to the parents would ever be strong enough to effect a potential disturbance. At any rate, I know of no case in which it was not neurotic parents who by terror and tenderness forced the child into these passionate attachments, with all the implications of possessiveness and jealousy described by Freud.

We are accustomed to believe that a hostile opposition to the family or to some member of it is unfortunate for the development of a child. It is unfortunate, of course, if the child has to fight against the actions of neurotic parents. If there are good reasons for opposition, however, the danger for the child's character formation lies not so much in feeling or expressing a protest, but in repressing it. There are several dangers arising from the repression of criticism, protest or accusations, and one is that the child is likely to take all the blame on itself and feel unworthy of love; the implications of this situation we shall discuss later. The danger that concerns us here is that repressed hostility may create anxiety and start the development we have discussed.

There are several reasons, effective in various degrees and combinations, why a child who grows up in such an atmosphere will repress hostility: helplessness, fear, love or feelings of guilt.

The helplessness of a child is often considered merely as a biological fact. Though the child is for long years factually dependent on its environment for the fulfilment of its needs - having less physical strength and less experience than the grown-ups - there is nevertheless too much emphasis on the biological aspect of the question. After the first two or three years of life there is a decided change from the prevailingly biological dependence to a kind of dependence that includes the mental, intellectual and spiritual life of the child. This continues until the child matures into early adulthood and is able to take life into its own hands. There are great individual differences, though, in the degree to which children remain dependent on their parents. It all depends on what the parents try to achieve in the education of their offspring: whether the tendency is to make a child strong, courageous, independent, capable of dealing with all sorts of situations, or whether the main tendency is to shelter the child, to make it obedient, to keep it ignorant of life as it is, or in short to infantilize it up to twenty years of age or longer. In children growing up under adverse conditions helplessness is usually artificially reinforced by intimidation, by babying or by bringing and keeping the child in a stage of emotional dependence. The more helpless a child is made the less will it dare to feel or show opposition, and the longer will such opposition be delayed. In this situation the underlying feeling - or what we may call the motto - is: I have to repress my hostility because I need you.

Fear may be aroused directly by threats, prohibitions and punishments, and by outbreaks of temper or violent scenes witnessed by a child; it may be aroused also by indirect intimidation, such as impressing the child with the great dangers of life - germs, street cars, strangers, uneducated children, climbing trees. The more apprehensive a child is made the less will it dare to show or even to feel hostility. Here the motto is: I have to repress my hostility because I am afraid of you.

Love may be another reason for repressing hostility. When genuine affection is absent there is often a great verbal emphasis on how much the parents love the child and how they would sacrifice for him up to the last drop of their blood. A child, particularly if otherwise intimidated, may cling to this substitute for love and fear to be rebellious lest it lose the reward for being docile. In such situations the motto is: I have to repress hostility for fear of losing love.

Thus far we have discussed situations in which a child represses his hostility against the parents because he is afraid that any expression of it would spoil his relations to the parents. He is motivated by plain fear that these powerful giants would desert him, withdraw their reassuring benevolence or turn against him. In addition, in our culture a child is usually made to feel guilty for any feelings or expressions of hostility or opposition; that is, he is made to feel unworthy or contemptible in his own eyes if he either expresses or feels resentment against the parents or if he breaks rules set up by them. These two reasons for feelings of guilt are closely interrelated. The more a child is made to feel guilty about trespassing on forbidden territory the less will he dare to feel spiteful or accusatory toward the parents.

In our culture the sexual sphere is the one in which guilt feelings are most frequently stimulated. Whether prohibitions are expressed by audible silence or by open threats and punishment, a child frequently comes to feel not only that sexual curiosity and activities are forbidden but that he is dirty and despicable if he indulges in them. If there are any sexual fantasies and wishes concerning one of the parents, these, too, though they remain unexpressed as a result of the forbidding attitude toward sexuality in general, are likely to make a child feel guilty. In this situation the motto is: I have to repress hostility because I would be a bad child if I felt hostile.

In various combinations any of the factors mentioned may bring a child to repress his hostility and eventually produce anxiety.

But does every infantile anxiety necessarily lead ultimately to a neurosis? Our knowledge is not advanced enough to answer this question adequately. My belief is that infantile anxiety is a necessary factor but not a sufficient cause for the development of a neurosis. It seems that favorable circumstances, such as an early change of surroundings or counteracting influences of any sort, may forestall a definite neurotic development. If, however, as frequently happens, living conditions are not of a kind to diminish the anxiety, then not only may this anxiety persist, but - as we shall see later - it is bound gradually to increase and to set in motion all the processes which constitute a neurosis.

Among the factors that may influence the further development of infantile anxiety there is one that I want to consider especially. It makes a great difference whether the reaction of hostility and anxiety is restricted to the surroundings which forced the child into it, or whether it develops into an attitude of hostility and anxiety toward people in general.

If a child is fortunate enough to have, for example, a loving grandmother, an understanding teacher, some good friends, his experience with them may prevent him from expecting nothing but bad from everybody. But the more difficult are his experiences in the family, the more will a child be inclined to develop not only a reaction of hatred toward the parents and other children but a distrustful or spiteful attitude toward everyone. The more a child is isolated and deterred from making other experiences of his own, the more such a development will be fostered. And finally, the more a child covers up his grudge against his own family, as for instance by conforming with his parents' attitudes, the more he projects his anxiety to the outside world and thus becomes convinced that the "world" in general is dangerous and frightening.

The general anxiety concerning the "world" may also develop or increase gradually. A child who has grown up in the kind of atmosphere described will not dare in his own contacts with others to be as enterprising or pugnacious as they. He will have lost the blissful certainty of being wanted and will take even a harmless teasing as a cruel rejection. He will be wounded and hurt more easily than others and will be less capable of defending himself.

The condition that is fostered or brought about by the factors I have mentioned, or by similar factors, is an insidiously increasing, all-pervading feeling of being lonely and helpless in a hostile world. The acute individual reactions to individual provocations crystallize into a character attitude. This attitude as such does not constitute a neurosis but it is the nutritive soil out of which a definite neurosis may develop at any time. Because of the fundamental role this attitude plays in neuroses I have given it a special designation: the basic anxiety; it is inseparably interwoven with a basic hostility.

In psychoanalysis, working through all the different individual forms of anxiety, one gradually recognizes the fact that the basic anxiety underlies all relationships to people. While the individual anxieties may be stimulated by actual cause, the basic anxiety continues to exist even though there is no particular stimulus in the actual situation. If the whole neurotic picture were compared to a state of political unrest in a nation, the basic anxiety and basic hostility would be similar to the underlying dissatisfactions with and protests against the regime. Surface manifestations may be entirely missing in either case, or they may appear in diversified forms. In the state they may appear as riots, strikes, assemblies, demonstrations; in the psychological sphere, too, the forms of anxiety may manifest themselves in symptoms of all sorts. Regardless of the particular provocation, all manifestations of the anxiety emanate from one common background.

In simple situation neuroses the basic anxiety is lacking. They are constituted by neurotic reactions to actual conflict situations on the part of individuals whose personal relations are undisturbed. The following may serve as an example of these cases as they frequently occur in a psychotherapeutic practice.

A woman of forty-five complained about heart - pounding and anxiety states at night, with profuse perspiration. There were no organic findings, and all the evidence suggested that she was a healthy person. The impression she gave was of a warmhearted and straightforward woman. Twenty years before, for reasons which lay not so much in herself as in the situation, she had married a man twenty-five years older than she. She had been very happy with him, had been satisfied sexually, had three children who had developed exceptionally well. She had been diligent and capable in housekeeping. In the past five or six years her husband had become somewhat cranky and sexually less potent, but she had endured this without any neurotic reaction. The trouble had started seven months before, when a likable, marriageable man of her own age had begun to pay her personal attention. What had happened was that she had developed a resentment against her aging husband but had entirely repressed this feeling for reasons that were very strong in view of her whole mental and social background and the basically good marriage relationship. With a little help in a few interviews she was able to face the conflict situation squarely and thereby rid herself of her anxiety.

Nothing can better indicate the importance of basic anxiety than a comparison of individual reactions in cases of character neurosis with those in cases, like the one just cited, which belong to the group of simple situation neuroses. The latter are found in healthy persons who for understandable reasons are incapable of solving a conflict situation consciously, that is, they are unable to face the existence and the nature of the conflict and hence are incapable of making a clear decision. One of the outstanding differences between the two types of neuroses is the great facility of therapeutic results in the situation neurosis. In character neuroses therapeutic treatment has to proceed under great difficulties and consequently extends over a long period of time, sometimes too long a period for the patient to wait to be cured; but the situation neurosis is comparatively easily solved. An understanding discussion of the situation is often not only a symptomatic but also a causal therapy. In other cases the causal therapy is the removal of the difficulty by changing the environment.

Thus while in situation neuroses we have the impression of an adequate relation between conflict situation and neurotic reaction, this relation seems to be missing in character neuroses. Because of the existing basic anxiety, the slightest provocation may elicit the most intense reaction, as we shall see later in more detail.

Although the range of manifest forms of anxiety, or the protection against it, is infinite and varies with each individual, the basic anxiety is more or less the same everywhere, varying only in extent and intensity. It may be roughly described as a feeling of being small, insignificant, helpless, deserted, endangered, in a world that is out to abuse, cheat, attack, humiliate, betray, envy. One patient of mine expressed this feeling in a picture she drew spontaneously, in which she was sitting ill the midst of a scene as a tiny, helpless, naked baby, surrounded by all sorts of menacing monsters, human and animal, ready to attack her.

In psychoses one will often find a rather high degree of awareness of the existence of such an anxiety. In paranoid patients this anxiety is restricted to one or several definite persons; in schizophrenic patients there is often a keen awareness of the potential hostility of the world around them, so much so that they are inclined to take even a kindness shown to them as implying potential hostility.

In neuroses, however, there is rarely an awareness of the existence of the basic anxiety, or of the basic hostility, at least not of the weight and significance it has for the entire life. A patient of mine who saw herself in a dream as a small mouse that had to hide in a hole in order not to be stepped upon - and thereby gave an absolutely true picture of how she acted in life - had not the remotest idea that factually she was frightened of everyone, and told me she did not know what anxiety was. A basic distrust toward everyone may be covered up by a superficial conviction that people in general are quite likable, and it may coexist with perfunctorily good relations with others; an existing deep contempt for everyone may be camouflaged by a readiness to admire.

Although the basic anxiety concerns people it may be entirely divested of its personal character and transformed into a feeling of being endangered by thunderstorms, political events, germs, accidents, canned food, or to a feeling of being doomed by fate. It is not difficult for the trained observer to recognize the basis of these attitudes, but it always requires intense psychoanalytic work before the neurotic person himself recognizes that his anxiety does not really concern germs and the like, but people, and that his irritation against people is not, or is not only, an adequate and justified reaction to some actual provocation, but that he has become basically hostile toward others, distrustful of them.

Before describing the implications of the basic anxiety for neuroses we have to discuss one question which is probably in the minds of many readers. Is not the attitude of basic anxiety and hostility toward people, described as an essential constituent of neuroses, a "normal" attitude which secretly all of us have, though perhaps in a lesser degree? When considering this question one has to distinguish two points of view.

If "normal" is used in the sense of a general human attitude, one could say that the basic anxiety has indeed a normal corollary in what German philosophical and religious language has termed the Angst der Kreatur. What the phrase expresses is that factually all of us are helpless toward forces more powerful than ourselves, such as death, illness, old age, catastrophes of nature, political events, accidents. The first time we recognize this is in the helplessness of childhood, but the knowledge remains with us for our entire life. This anxiety of the Kreatur has in common with the basic anxiety the element of the helplessness toward greater powers, but it does not connote hostility on the part of those powers.

If "normal" is used, however, in the sense of normal for our culture, one could say this much: in general experience will lead a person in our culture, provided his life is not too sheltered, to become more reserved toward people as he reaches maturity, to be more cautious in trusting them, more familiar with the fact that often people's actions are not straightforward but are determined by cowardice and expediency. If he is an honest person he will include himself; if not he will see all of this more clearly in others. In short he develops an attitude which is definitely akin to the basic anxiety. There are these differences, however: the healthy mature person does not feel helpless toward these human failings and there is in him none of the indiscriminateness that is found in the basic neurotic attitude. He retains the capacity of bestowing a good deal of genuine friendliness and confidence on some people. Perhaps the differences are to be accounted for by the fact that the healthy person made the bulk of h

is unfortunate experiences at an age when he could integrate them, while the neurotic person made them at an age when he could not master them, and as a consequence of his helplessness reacted to them with anxiety.

The basic anxiety has definite implications for the person's attitude toward himself and others. It means emotional isolation, all the harder to bear as it concurs with a feeling of intrinsic weakness of the self. It means a weakening of the very foundation of self-confidence. It carries the germ for a potential conflict between the desire to rely on others, and the impossibility to do so because of deep distrust of and hostility toward them. It means that because of intrinsic weakness the person feels a desire to put all responsibility upon others, to be protected and taken care of, whereas because of the basic hostility there is much too much distrust to carry out this desire. And invariably the consequence is that he has to put the greatest part of his energies into securing reassurance.

The more unbearable the anxiety the more thorough the protective means have to be. There are in our culture four principal ways in which a person tries to protect himself against the basic anxiety: affection, submissiveness, power, withdrawal.

First, securing affection in any form may serve as a powerful protection against anxiety. The motto is: If you love me you will not hurt me.

Second, submissiveness can be roughly subdivided according to whether or not it concerns definite persons or institutions. There is such a definite focus, for example, in submission to standardized traditional views, to the rites of some religion or to the demands of some powerful person. To obey these rules or comply with these demands will be the determining motive for all behavior. This attitude may take the form of having to he "good," although the connotation of "good" varies with the demands or the rules that are complied with.

When the attitude of compliance is not attached to any institution or person it takes the more generalized form of compliance with the potential wishes of all persons and avoidance of everything that might arouse resentment. In such cases the individual represses all demands of his own, represses criticism of others, is willing to let himself be abused without defending himself and is ready to be indiscriminately helpful to others. Occasionally people are aware of the fact that anxiety underlies their actions, but usually they are not at all aware of this fact and firmly believe they act as they do because of an ideal of unselfishness or self-sacrifice which goes so far as a renunciation of their own wishes. In both the definite and the general forms of submissiveness the motto is: If I give in, I shall not be hurt.

The submissive attitude may also serve the purpose of securing reassurance by affection. If affection is so important to a person that his feeling of security in life depends on it, then he is willing to pay any price for it, and in the main this means complying with the wishes of others. Frequently, however, a person is unable to believe in any affection, and then his complying attitude is directed not toward winning affection but toward winning protection. There are persons who can feel secure only by rigid submission. In them the anxiety is so great and the disbelief in affection so complete that the possibility of affection does not enter at all.

A third attempt at protection against the basic anxiety is through power - trying to achieve security by gaining factual power or success, or possession, or admiration, or intellectual superiority. In this attempt at protection the motto is: If I have power, no one can hurt me.

The fourth means of protection is withdrawal. The preceding groups of protective devices have in common a willingness to contend with the world, to cope with it in one way or another. Protection can also be found, however, by withdrawing from the world. This does not mean going into a desert or into complete seclusion; it means achieving independence of others as they affect either one's external or one's internal needs. Independence in regard to external needs may be achieved, for example, by piling up possessions. This motivation for possession is entirely different from the motivation for the sake of power or influence, and the use made of the possessions is likewise different. Where possessions are amassed for the sake of independence there is usually too much anxiety to enjoy them, and they are guarded with an attitude of parsimony because the only objective is to be safeguarded against all eventualities. Another means that serves the same purpose of becoming externally independent of others is a restriction of one's needs to a minimum.

Independence in regard to internal needs may be found, for example, by an attempt to become emotionally detached from people so that nothing will hurt or disappoint one. It means choking off one's emotional needs. One expression of such detachment is the attitude of not taking anything seriously, including one's Helf, an attitude often found in intellectual circles. Not taking one's self seriously is not to be confounded with not thinking one's self important. In fact these attitudes may be mutually contradictory.

These devices of withdrawal have a similarity with the devices of submissiveness or compliance, inasmuch as both involve a renunciation of one's own wishes. But while in the latter group renunciation is in the service of being "good" or of complying with the desires of others in order to feel safe, in the former group the idea of being "good" plays no role at all, and the object of renunciation is attaining independence of others. Here the motto is: If I withdraw, nothing can hurt me.

In order to evaluate the role played in neuroses by these various attempts at protection against the basic anxiety it is necessary to realize their potential intensity. They are prompted not by a wish to satisfy a desire for pleasure or happiness, but by a need for reassurance. This does not mean, however, that they are in any way less powerful or less imperative than instinctual drives. Experience shows that the impact of a striving for ambition, for instance, may be equally as strong as or even stronger than a sexual impulse.

Any one of these four devices, pursued exclusively or predominantly, can be effective in bringing the reassurance wanted, if the life situation allows its pursuit without incurring conflicts - even though such a one-sided pursuit is usually paid for with an impoverishment of the personality as a whole. For example, a woman following the path of submissiveness may find peace and a great deal of secondary satisfaction in a culture which requires from a woman obedience to family or husband and compliance with the traditional forms. If it is a monarch who develops a restless striving for power and possession, the result again may be reassurance and a successful life. As a matter of fact, however, a straightforward pursuit of one goal will often fail to fulfill its purpose because the demands set up are so excessive or so inconsiderate that they involve conflicts with the surroundings. More frequently reassurance from a great underlying anxiety is sought not in one way only, but in several ways which, moreover, are incompatible with one another. Thus the neurotic person may at the same time be driven imperatively toward dominating everyone and wanting to be loved by everyone, toward complying with others and imposing his will on them, toward detachment from people and a craving for their affection. It is these utterly unsoluble conflicts which are most often the dynamic center of neuroses.

The two attempts which most frequently clash are the striving for affection and the striving for power. Therefore in the following chapters I shall discuss these in greater detail.

The structure of neuroses as I have described it is not, in principle, contradictory to Freud's theory that in the main neuroses are the result of a conflict between instinctual drives and social demands, or their representation in the "super ego". But while I agree that the conflict between individual strivings and social pressure is an indispensable condition for every neurosis, I do not believe it is a sufficient condition. The clash between individual desires and social requirements does not necessarily bring about neuroses, but may just as well lead to factual restrictions in life, that is, to the simple suppression or repression of desires or, in most general terms, to factual suffering. A neurosis is brought about only if this conflict generates anxiety and if the attempts to allay anxiety lead in turn to defensive tendencies, which, although equally imperative, are nevertheless incompatible with one another.

Events Key

Месячный обзор

Пн Вт Ср Чт Пт Сб Вс
        1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28    
Пн Вт Ср Чт Пт Сб Вс
        1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30 31
Пн Вт Ср Чт Пт Сб Вс
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30