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Тексты для новичков: учимся читать английские тексты с переводом. Мы будем читать английские тексты с репетитором английского языка онлайн, чтобы научиться читать английскую транскрипцию
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Тексты для новичков: учимся читать английские тексты с переводом. Мы будем читать английские тексты с репетитором английского языка онлайн, чтобы научиться читать английскую транскрипцию

Простой текст на английском для новичков с разбором и переводом на русский язык mp3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Добрый день, сегодня на нашем уроке английского онлайн мы научимся читать и понимать английские тексты с переводом. Основная задача на начальном этапе обучения английскому языку онлайн - научиться правильно читать и произносить, и именно поэтому мы так много работаем с несложными текстами для начинающих, начитанными носителями языка, так как это лучший способ изучения английского для новичков. Тем из моих учащихся, которые только начинают изучать английский язык, зачастую бывает непросто понять как читать английскую транскрипцию или научиться научиться читать на английском даже простые тексты.

Простые тексты для начинающих изучать английский: как читать английские тексты с переводом?

Простые тексты для начинающих изучать английский - основной проверенный временем способ наработки словарного запаса, изучения грамматики в реальных предложения и постановки навыков чтения. Мы сможем набраться активной лексики, увидеть, как в реальных предложениях работаю правила грамматики, научиться понимать целые фразы и предложения - при условии, что Вы будете читать английские тексты с переводом под моим контролем на наших онлайн уроках английского языка по Скайпу.

Чтение текстов на английском языке в сочетании с разговорной практикой на английском по Скайп - один из самых эффективных способов изучения языка и действенный метод научиться читать на английском. Тексты на английском языке, если они правильно подобраны, сразу дадут Вам понимание, как правильно читать на английском языке и сильно помогут в изучении языка.

Чтение тексты для начинающих изучать английский язык с репетитором английского языка онлайн - изучение английского по скайпу для начинающих

Я рекомендую совмещать изучение английского по скайпу с чтением английских текстов, так как самодеятельное чтение английских текстов, особенно неправильно и неумело подобранных текстов на английском языке могут отбить охоту и желание изучать язык даже у самых стойких и упорных. В этом плане изучение английского по скайпу под контролем опытного учителя английского языка онлайн снимает такого рода проблемы.

Очень важно под руководством опытного репетитора английского языка онлайн, который проводит обучение английскому по скайпу, не только правильно подобрать тексты для начинающих изучать английский язык, но и правильно с этими текстами на английском языке работать.

Как читать английские тексты с переводом с репетитором по Skype, чтобы научиться читать английскую транскрипцию?

Основной принцип работы с простыми текстами на английском языке на онлайн уроках по Skype заключается, как бы удивительно это ни звучало, в их чтении. Читать английские тексты с переводом на онлайн уроках по скайпу полезно не только тем, что Вы учитесь читать английскую транскрипцию, запоминаете лексику и произношение новых слов, тексты для чтения на английском для новичков- отличный способ повысить уверенность в собственных силах.

Однако тексты для чтения на английском языке бывают совершенно различными как по целям обучения, например, ученик хочет просто научиться правильно читать по-английски, так и по методикам, при помощи которых эти цели достигаются - можно просто читать английский текст онлайн, а можно выполнять самые разные задания по изучаемому материалу.

Читаем английские тексты с переводом на онлайн уроках по Skype. Где взять тексты для чтения онлайн на английском языке своего уровня?

Самыми распространенными целями, которых добивается ученик на онлайн уроках по Skype, который читает английские тексты с переводом, являются: расширение общей лексики английского языка или тематического словарного запаса, обучение и эффективная тренировка в произношении английских слов и выражений - при должном упорстве можно научиться читать английскую транскрипцию за неделю занятий. Другой целью чтения английских текстов на онлайн уроках по Skype может быть закрепление правил английской грамматики путем разбора в английских текстах для чтения типичных примеров, встречающихся в тексте, и их многократного повторения в различных ситуациях с целью запоминания и так далее.

Очевидно, что для достижения поставленных целей недостаточно просто самостоятельно читать английские тексты с переводом - необходим подбор соответствующих этим целям текстов на английском языке и жесткий контроль со стороны учителя, который на онлайн уроках английского языка по Skype не допускает ошибок в чтении и

Как просто научиться читать на английском языке при помощи текстов для чтения онлайн на дистанционных курсах английского языка?

Другим критерием, на который я опираюсь при подборе текстов для чтения онлайн на английском языке на своих на дистанционных курсах английского языка, является их лексическая и грамматическая сложность. Важно понимать, что начинающим непросто научиться читать по-английски - тексты для чтения на английском языке не должны вызывать шок своей сложностью. В особенности это касается уроков английского по скайпу на дистанционных курсах английского языка - отсутствие невербального контакта между учеником и учителем английского онлайн создает дополнительные психологические проблемы.

В этом плане на дистанционных курсах английского языка начинающим изучение английского языка онлайн необходимы более простые и короткие английские онлайн тексты, чтобы не рассеивать внимание на излише сложную лексику и грамматику, и не утомить начинающих учеников английского раньше времени. Все эти факторы непременно учитываются при планирование уроков английского онлайн через Skype.

Для учеников, которые хотят научиться на дистанционных курсах английского языка читать на хорошо и быстро, нужны значительно более сложные тексты на английском языке со значительным многообразием лексического материала и грамматических форм. Я в этих целях предлагаю читать английские тесты из материалов IELTS.

Преподаватель английского языка онлайн подберет Вам тексты для начинающих изучать английский язык

Я не устаю повторять, что изучение английского по скайпу под контролем учителя - лучший способ отработки всех навыков, в том числе и чтения текстов на английском языке; однако выбор текстов для начинающих изучать английский язык может осуществляться самостоятельно - опытным путем, либо с помощью преподавателя английского языка онлайн. Как я уже говорил Выше, гораздо лучше, если тексты для чтения на английском языке Вам составит учитель английского онлайн. Профессиональный репетитор английского языка по Skype сможет точно определить ваш уровень знания английского языка и подобрать соответствующие тексты для чтения на английском.

Изучение английского по скайпу в этом плане дает огромные преимущества, однако, если вы занимаетесь изучением английского языка самостоятельно, то вам следует выбирать тексты на английском языке исходя из следующих соображений - количество незнакомых слов в английском тексте не должно превышать десяти или пятнадцати процентов. Чтение английских текстов с большим количеством новых слов будет отнимать много времени на изучение английского по скайпу, будет требовать постоянного обращения к словарю и снизит эффективность запоминания новых слов. Хорошим вариантом работы с текстами на английском языке является чтение небольших фрагментов с приведенным в конце переводом наиболее сложных слов и выражений. Перевод слов сэкономит время на обращение к словарю, а транскрипция поможет научиться правильно произносить слово - наработка этих навыков будет проще, если Вы выберете изучение английского по скайпу.

Практика английского языка по скайпу с онлайн учителем

Почему изучение английского по скайпу так эффективно? Выбирая практику разговорного английского по Skype или подписываясь на полный онлайн курс обучения английскому языку Skype, Вы получаете возможность экономить массу денег и времени, которые уходят на дорогу на курсы английского языка и обратно, а также экономите деньги, которые можно потратить на поездки заграницу для разговорной практики с носителями. Также занятия английским по Skype - это возможность заниматься с лучшим преподавателем английского языка онлайн, программа которого подходит именно Вам.

Я думаю, что сумел Вас убедить в том, что практика разговорного английского по Skype - это превосходный шанс освоить навыки разговорного общения на английском языке быстро и эффективно.

Как правило, вместо Skype я использую еще более удобную форму занятий - онлайн класс, который загружается у учеников прямо в браузере. Вы можете зайти в онлайн класс английского языка по ссылке, которая расположена ниже, и послушать, как проходят уроки английского языка онлайн на моем сайте.

Нажмите на ссылку и войдите в онлайн класс английского языка

The Gift

Donna Ashlock, a 14-year-old girl from California, was very sick. She had a bad heart. "Donna needs a new heart," her doctors said. "She must have a new heart, or she will die soon." Felipe Garza, 15, was worried about Donna. Felipe was Donna's friend. He liked Donna very much. He liked her freckles, and he liked her smile. Felipe didn't want Donna to die.

Felipe talked to his mother about Donna. "I'm going to die," Felipe told his mother, "and I'm going to give my heart to Donna." Felipe's mother didn't pay much attention to Felipe. "Felipe is just kidding," she thought. "Felipe is not going to die. He's strong and healthy."

But Felipe was not healthy. He had terrible headaches sometimes. "My head really hurts," he often told his friends. Felipe never told his parents about his headaches. One morning Felipe woke up with a sharp pain in his head. He was dizzy, and he couldn't breathe. The Garzas rushed Felipe to the hospital. Doctors at the hospital had terrible news for the Garzas. "Felipe's brain is dead," the doctors said. "We can't save him."

The Garzas were very sad. But they remembered Felipe's words. "Felipe wanted to give his heart to Donna," they told the doctors. The doctors did several tests. Then they told the Garzas, "We can give Felipe's heart to Donna."

The doctors took out Felipe's heart and rushed the heart to Donna. Other doctors took out Donna's heart and put Felipe's heart in her chest. In a short time the heart began to beat.

The operation was a success. Felipe's heart was beating in Donna's chest, but Donna didn't know it. Her parents and doctors didn't tell her. They waited until she was stronger; then they told her about Felipe. "I feel very sad," Donna said, "but I'm thankful to Felipe."

Three months after the operation Donna Ashlock went back to school. She has to have regular check-ups, and she has to take medicines every day. But she is living a normal life. Felipe's brother John says, "Every time we see Donna, we think of Felipe. She has Felipe's heart in her. That gives us great peace."

Задание No 1 по тексту для начинающих изучать английский язык – Vocabulary

Заполните пропуски в предложениях следующими словами: check-up, sharp, rushed, kidding, dizzy:

1. When Felipe told his mother, "I'm going to die" she thought, "Felipe is not serious. He's only joking." She thought Felipe was just .... 2. Felipe had a sudden, terrible pain in his head. It was a ... pain. 3. Felipe thought, "The room is going around and around." He felt .... 4. When Felipe's parents took him to the hospital, they drove fast. They ... him to the hospital. 5. Donna goes to the doctor sometimes. The doctor listens to her heart and makes sure it is working well. Donna goes to the doctor for a ....

Задание No 2, которое научит читать английские тексты с переводом, – Understanding the Main Idea

Обведите кружком наиболее правильный ответ - при необходимости Вы можете еще раз прочитать английский текст с переводом:

1. The title of the story is "The Gift". What was the gift?

a. two toys and the balloons.
b. Felipe's heart.
c. the operation.

2. Why did Donna feel sad and thankful?

a. She had an operation, but she went to school three months later.
b. She has to take medicine every day, but she is living a normal life.
c. Her friend Felipe died, but he gave Donna his heart.

Задание No 3, чтобы научиться читать английский текст онлайн, – Understanding Cause and Effect

Это задание научит Вас внимательно читать английский текст онлайн: посмотрите на подчеркнутые местоимения в верхнем блоке. Что они значат? Подберите ответ в нижнем блоке:

1. They said Donna needed a new heart.
2. He was Donna's friend.
3. Felipe told them his head hurt.
4. They told the doctors: "Felipe wanted to give his heart to Donna."
5. It was a success.
6. Donna has to take it every day.

a. Felipe Garza
b. Felipe's friends
c. medicine
d. the Garzas
e. doctors
f. Donna's operation.

Задание No 4, которое научит вас правильно читать на английском языке – Finding More Information

Как правильно читать на английском языке? Посмотрите на английские предложения в верхнем блоке. Какое предложение в нижнем блоке дает вам дополнительную информацию:

1. Donna Ashlock was very sick.
2. Felipe was not healthy.
3. Doctors at the hospital had terrible news for the Garzas.
4. The Garzas remembered Felipe's words.

a. He had terrible headaches sometimes.
b. "I'm going to give my heart to Donna."
c. "We cannot save Felipe", they said.
d. She had a bad heart.

Задание No 5, чтобы проверить понимание текстов для чтения на английском языке, – Discussion

Подготовьтесь к обсуждению по предложенной теме - это поможет лучше усвоить тексты для чтения на английском языке:

Many people carry donor cards in their wallets. A donor card says, "If I die in an accident, take my heart and other important organs. Give them to sick people." Do you want a donor card?

Задание No 6 на чтение английские тексты с переводом – Writing

Чтобы научиться читать английские тексты с переводом, прочитайте и переведите рассказ. Напишите рассказ о подарке, о котором мечтаете. Используйте в качестве образцов тексты для чтения на английском языке из этого курса:

The title of the story is "The Gift." Would you like a gift? Imagine this: One day you come home from English class and walk into the kitchen. A big box is on the kitchen table. The box has your name on it. It's a gift for you! You open the box and look at your gift. It is something you have wanted for a long, long time. What is your gift? Write about it. Here is an example.

When I walked into the kitchen, I smelled something delicious. It smelled like food from my country. "That is impossible!" I thought. Then I saw the box and opened it. Inside the box was a dinner with my favourite foods. My mother sent the dinner from Panama! The dinner was rice, beans and ceviche. (Ceviche is a seafood with lemon, garlic and onions; is was very spicy). I ate the dinner. It was delicious. Thank you, Mum.

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Английский онлайн - английская медицинская лексика. Медицинская лексика для врачей, изучающих английский язык, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time
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Английский онлайн - английская медицинская лексика. Медицинская лексика для врачей, изучающих английский язык, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time

ВАЖНО! К практическим урокам в рамках курса Английский язык для врачей не существует аудиозаписей - вся работа ведется с учениками вживую прямо на онлайн уроке!

английский язык онлайн для врачей и медиков english online

Chapter 4: Anxiety and Hostility

When discussing the difference between fear and anxiety we found as our first result that anxiety is a fear, which essentially involves a subjective factor. What then is the nature of this subjective factor?

Let us start by describing the experience an individual undergoes during anxiety. He has the feeling of a powerful, inescapable danger against which he himself is entirely helpless. Whatever the manifestations of anxiety, whether it be a hypochondriac fear of cancer, anxiety concerning thunderstorms, a phobia about high places, or any comparable fear, the two factors of an overpowering danger and defenselessness against it are invariably present. Sometimes the dangerous force against which he feels helpless may be felt to come from outside - thunderstorms, cancer, accidents and the like; sometimes the danger is felt to threaten him from his own ungovernable impulses - fear of having to jump down from a high place, or to cut someone with a knife; sometimes the danger is entirely vague and intangible, as it often is in an anxiety attack.

Such feelings in themselves, however, are not characteristic only of anxiety; they may be exactly the same in any situation which involves a factual overpowering danger and a factual helplessness toward it. I imagine that the subjective experience of persons during an earthquake, or of an infant under two years of age exposed to brutalities, is in no way different from the subjective experience of one who has anxiety concerning thunderstorms. In the case of fear the danger is present in reality and the feeling of helplessness is conditioned by reality, and in the case of anxiety the danger is generated or magnified by intrapsychic factors and the helplessness is conditioned by one's own attitude.

The question concerning the subjective factor in anxiety is thus reduced to the more specific inquiry: what are the psychic conditions that create the feeling of an imminent powerful danger and an attitude of helplessness toward it? This at any rate is the question that the psychologist has to raise. That chemical conditions in the body can also create the feeling and the physical concomitants of anxiety is as little a psychological problem as the fact that chemical conditions can produce elation or sleep.

In tackling this problem of anxiety Freud has, as so often in other problems, shown us the direction in which to move. He has done this by his crucial discovery that the subjective factor involved in anxiety lies in our own instinctual drives; in other words, both the danger anticipated by anxiety and the feeling of helplessness toward it are conjured by the explosive force of our own impulses. I shall discuss Freud's views in more detail at the end of this chapter, and shall also point out in what way my conclusions differ from his.

In principle, any impulse has the potential power to provoke anxiety, provided that its discovery or pursuit would mean a violation of other vital interests or needs, and provided that it is sufficiently imperative or passionate. In periods when there are definite and severe sexual taboos, like the Victorian era, yielding to sexual impulses has often meant incurring a realistic danger. An unmarried girl, for example, had to face a real danger of tortured conscience or social disgrace, and those yielding to masturbating urges had to face a real danger in so far as they were subject to threats of castration or warnings of fatal physical injuries or mental diseases. The same holds true today for certain perverted sex impulses, such as exhibitionistic drives or impulses directed toward children. In our times, however, as far as "normal" sex impulses are concerned, our attitude has become so lenient that admitting them to ourselves, or carrying them out in reality, involves serious danger much less frequently; hence there is less factual reason for apprehension on that score.

The change in the cultural attitude toward sex may be greatly responsible for the fact that, according to my experience, sexual impulses as such are only in exceptional cases found to be the dynamic force behind anxiety. This statement may seem exaggerated, because no doubt on the surface anxiety does seem to be linked with sexual desires. Neurotic persons are often found to have anxiety in connection with sexual intercourse, or to have inhibitions on that score as a consequence of anxiety. Closer analysis shows, however, that the basis of anxiety usually lies not in the sex impulses as such but in hostile impulses coupled with them, such as the impulse to hurt or humiliate the partner through intercourse.

In fact, hostile impulses of various kinds form the main source from which neurotic anxiety springs. I am afraid lest this new statement should sound again like an unjustified generalization from what may be true for some cases. But these cases, in which one can find a direct connection between the hostility and the anxiety it promotes, are not the only basis for my statement. It is well known that an acute hostile impulse may be the direct cause of anxiety, if its pursuit would mean defeating the purposes of the self. One example may serve for many. F. goes on a hiking trip through the mountains with a girl, Mary, to whom he is deeply devoted. Nevertheless, he feels acutely and savagely infuriated against her because his jealousy has somehow been aroused. When walking with her on a precipitous mountain path he gets a severe attack of anxiety, with heavy breathing and heart-pounding, because of a conscious impulse to push the girl over the edge of the path. The structure of anxieties like these is the same as indicated in anxieties from sexual sources: an imperative impulse, which, if yielded to, would mean a catastrophe for the self.

In the great majority of persons, however, a direct causal connection between hostility and neurotic anxiety is far from evident. In order, then, to make it clear why I declare that in the neuroses of our time hostile impulses are the main psychological force promoting anxiety, it is necessary to examine now in some detail the psychological consequences which result from a repression of hostility.

Repressing a hostility means "pretending" that everything is all right and thus refraining from fighting when we ought to fight, or at least when we wish to fight. Hence, the first unavoidable consequence of such a repression is that it generates a feeling of defenselessness, or to be more exact, it reinforces an already given feeling of defenselessness. If hostility is repressed when a person's interests are factually attacked it becomes possible for others to take advantage of him.

The experience of a chemist, C., represents an everyday occurrence of this kind. C. had what was regarded as nervous exhaustion as a consequence of too much work. He was unusually gifted and very ambitious, without knowing that he was. For reasons we shall leave aside, he had repressed his ambitious strivings and hence appeared modest. When he entered the laboratory of a great chemical firm another member of the staff, G., a little older in years and higher in rank than C., look him under his wing and showed every sign of friendliness. Because of a series of personal factors - dependence on others' affection, previous intimidation concerning critical observation, not recognizing his own ambition and hence not seeing it in others - C. was happy to accept the friendliness and failed to observe that in reality G. cared for nothing but his own career. And it struck him but dimly that on one occasion G. reported as his own an idea which was relevant for a possible invention but which was really C.'s idea, one that he had formerly expressed to G. in a friendly conversation. For the flicker of a moment C. was distrustful, but because his own ambition factually stirred up an enormous hostility in him, he immediately repressed not only this hostility but with it also the warranted criticism and distrust. Hence, he remained convinced that G. was his best friend. Consequently, when G. discouraged him about continuing a certain line of work he took the advice at face value. When G. produced an invention that C. might have made, C. merely felt that G.'s gifts and intelligence were far superior to his own. He felt happy to have such an admirable friend. Thus by having repressed his distrust and his anger C. failed to notice that in crucial questions G. was his enemy rather than his friend. Because he clung to the illusion that he was liked, C. relinquished his preparedness to fight for his own interests. He did not even realize that a vital interest of his own was attacked, and consequently could not fight for it, but allowed the other to take advantage of his weakness.

The fears which repression serves to overcome may also be overcome by keeping the hostility under conscious control. But whether one controls or represses hostility is not a matter of choice, because repression is a reflex-like process. It occurs if in a particular situation it is unbearable to be aware that one is hostile. In such a case, of course, there is no possibility of conscious control. The main reasons why awareness of hostility may be unbearable are that one may love or need a person at the same time that one is hostile toward him, that one may not want to see the reasons, such as envy or possessiveness, which have promoted the hostility, or that it may be frightening to recognize within one's self hostility toward anyone. In such circumstances, repression is the shortest and quickest way toward an immediate reassurance. By repression, the frightening hostility disappears from awareness, or is kept from entering awareness. I should like to repeat this sentence in other words, because for all its simplicity it is one of those psychoanalytic statements, which is but rarely understood: if hostility is repressed the person has not the remotest idea that he is hostile.

The quickest way toward a reassurance, however, is not necessarily the safest way in the long run. By the process of repression the hostility - or to indicate its dynamic character we had better use here the term rage - is removed from conscious awareness but is not abolished. Split off from the context of the individual's personality, and hence beyond control, it revolves within him as an affect, which is highly explosive and eruptive, and therefore tends to be discharged. The explosiveness of the repressed affect is all the greater because by its very isolation it assumes larger and often fantastic dimensions.

As long as one is aware of animosity, its expansion is restricted in three ways. First, consideration of the circumstances as they are in a given situation shows him what he can and what he cannot do toward an enemy or alleged enemy. Second, if the anger concerns one whom he otherwise admires or likes or needs, the anger will sooner or later become integrated into the totality of his feelings. Finally, inasmuch as man has developed a certain sense of what is appropriate to do or not to do, personality being as it is, and this too will restrict his hostile impulses.

If the anger is repressed, then access to these restricting possibilities is cut off, with the result that the hostile impulses trespass the restrictions from inside and outside, though only in fantasy. If the chemist I mentioned had followed his impulses he would have wanted to tell others how Gr. had abused his friendship, or to intimate to his superior that G. had stolen his idea or kept him from pursuing it. Since his anger was repressed it became dissociated and expanded, as would probably have shown in his dreams; it is likely that it his dreams he committed murder in some symbolic form, or became an admired genius, while others went disgracefully to pieces.

By its very dissociation the repressed hostility, will in the course of time usually become intensified from outside sources. For instance, if a high employee has developed an anger toward his chief, because the chief has made arrangements without discussing them with him, and if the employee represses his anger, never remonstrating against the procedure, the superior will certainly keep on acting over his head. Thereby new anger is constantly generated.

Another consequence of repressing hostility arises from the fact that a person registers within himself the existence of a highly explosive affect, which is beyond control. Before discussing the consequences of this, we have to consider a question that it suggests. By definition, the result of repressing an affect or an impulse is that the individual is no longer aware of its existence, so that in his conscious mind he does not know that he has any hostile feelings toward another. How then can I say that he "registers" the existence of the repressed affect within himself? The answer lies in the fact that there is no strict alternative between conscious and unconscious, but that there are, as H. S. Sullivan has pointed out in a lecture, several levels of consciousness. Not only is the repressed impulse still effective - one of the basic discoveries of Freud - but also in a deeper level of consciousness the individual knows about its presence. Reduced to the most simple terms possible this means that fundamentally we cannot fool ourselves, that actually we observe ourselves better than we are aware of doing, just as we usually observe others better than we are aware of doing - as shown, for example, in the correctness of the first impression we get from a person - but we may have stringent reasons for not taking cognizance of our observations. For the sake of saving repetitive explanations I shall use the term "register" when I mean that we know what is going on within us without our being aware of it.

These consequences of repressing hostility may themselves be sufficient to create anxiety, provided always that the hostility and its potential danger to other interests are sufficiently great. States of vague anxiety may be built in this way. More often, however, the process does not come to a standstill at this point, because there is an imperative need to get rid of the dangerous affect which from within menaces one's interest and security. A second reflex-like process sets in: the individual "projects" his hostile impulses to the outside world. The first "pretense," the repression, requires a second one: he "pretends" that the destructive impulses come not from him but from someone or something outside. Logically the person on whom his own hostile impulses will be projected is the person against whom they are directed. The result is that this person now assumes formidable proportions in his mind, partly because such a person becomes endowed with the same quality of ruthlessness that his own repressed impulses have, partly because in any danger the degree of potency depends not only on the factual conditions but also on the attitude taken toward them. The more defenseless one is the greater the danger appears.

As a by-function the projection also serves the need for self-justification. It is not the individual himself who wants to cheat, to steal, to exploit, to humiliate, but the others want to do such things to him. A wife who is ignorant of her own impulses to ruin her husband and subjectively convinced that she is most devoted may, because of this mechanism, consider her husband to be a brute wanting to harm her.

The process of projection may or may not be supported by another process working to the same end: a retaliation fear may get hold of the repressed impulse. In this case a person who wants to injure, cheat, deceive others has also a fear that they will do the same to him. How far the retaliation fear is a general characteristic ingrained in human nature, how far it arises from primitive experiences of sin and punishment, how far it presupposes a drive for personal revenge, I leave as an open question. Beyond doubt, it plays a great role in the minds of neurotic persons.

These processes brought about by repressed hostility result in the affect of anxiety. In fact, the repression generates exactly the state that is characteristic of anxiety: a feeling of defenselessness toward what is felt an overpowering danger menacing from outside.

Though the steps by which anxiety develops are simple in principle, in practice it is usually difficult to understand the conditions of anxiety. One of the complicating factors is that the repressed hostile impulses are frequently projected not on the person factually concerned but on something else. In one of Freud's case histories, for example, the little Hans did not develop an anxiety concerning his parents but an anxiety concerning white horses.3 An otherwise very sensible patient of mine, after a repression of hostility toward her husband, suddenly developed an anxiety concerning reptiles in the tiled swimming pool. It seems that nothing from germs to thunderstorms is too remote for an anxiety to be attached to it. The reasons for this tendency to detach the anxiety from the person concerned are quite obvious. If the anxiety factually concerns a parent, husband, friend or one in similar close relationship the assumption of hostility is felt to be incompatible with an existing tie of authority, love or appreciation. The maxim in these cases is the denial of hostility all around. By repressing his own hostility, the person denies that there is any hostility on his part, and by projecting his repressed hostility to thunderstorms he denies any hostility on the other's part. Many illusions of happy marriage rest on an ostrich policy of this kind.

That a repression of hostility leads with inexorable logic to the generation of anxiety does not mean that anxiety must become manifest every time the process takes place. Anxiety may be removed instantaneously by one of the protective devices we have discussed or shall discuss later. A person in such a situation may protect himself by such means, for example, as developing an enhanced need for sleep or taking to drink.

There are infinite variations in the forms of anxiety that may ensue from the process of repressing hostility. For the sake of a better understanding of the resultant pictures, I shall present the different possibilities schematically.

A: The danger is felt to arise from one's own impulses.
B: The danger is felt to arise from outside.

In view of the consequences of repressing hostility group A appears to be a direct outcome of the repression while group B presupposes a projection. Both A mid B can be subdivided into two subgroups.

I: The danger is felt to be directed against the self.
II: The danger is felt to be directed against others.

We would then have four main groups of anxiety:

A. I: The danger is felt to come from one's own impulses and to be directed against the self. In this group the hostility is turned secondarily against the self, a process which we shall discuss later.
Example: phobia of having to jump down from high places.

A. II: The danger is felt to come from one's own impulses and to be directed against others.
Example: phobia of having to injure others with knives.

B. I: The danger is felt to come from outside and to concern the self.
Example: fear of thunderstorms.

B. II: The danger is felt to come from outside and to concern others. In this group the hostility is projected to the outside world and the original object of hostility is retained.
Example: the anxiety of over-solicitous mothers concerning the dangers menacing their children.

Needless to say, the value of such a classification is limited. It may be useful in providing a quick orientation, but it does not suggest all possible contingencies. One should not deduce, for example, that persons developing an anxiety of type A never project their repressed hostility; it can only be deduced that in this specific form of anxiety projection is absent.

With the capacity of hostility to generate anxiety the relation between the two is not exhausted. The process also works the other way around: anxiety in its turn, when based on a feeling of being menaced, easily provokes a reactive hostility in defense. In this regard it does not differ in any way from fear, which may equally provoke aggression. The reactive hostility too, if repressed, may create anxiety, and thus a cycle is created. This effect of reciprocity between hostility and anxiety, one always generating and reinforcing the other, enables us to understand why we find in neuroses such an enormous amount of relentless hostility.4 This reciprocal influence is also the basic reason why severe neuroses so often become worse without any apparent difficult conditions from the outside. It does not matter whether anxiety or hostility has been the primary factor; the point that is highly important for the dynamics of a neurosis is that anxiety and hostility are inextricably interwoven.

In general, the concept of anxiety I have propounded is developed by methods that are essentially psychoanalytic. It operates with the dynamics of unconscious forces, the processes of repression, projection and the like. If we go into more detail, however, it differs in several respects from the position taken by Freud.

Freud has successively propounded two views concerning anxiety. The first of them was, in short, that anxiety results from a repression of impulses. This referred exclusively to the impulse of sexuality and was u purely physiological interpretation, because it was based on the belief that if sexual energy is prevented from discharge it will produce physical tension ill the body, which is transformed into anxiety. According to his second view, anxiety - or what he calls neurotic anxiety - results from fear of those impulses of which the discovery or pursuit would incur an external danger.® This second interpretation, which is psychological, refers not to the sexual impulse alone but also to that of aggression. In this interpretation of anxiety, Freud is not at all concerned about the repression or nonrepression of impulses, but only about the fear of those impulses, the pursuit of which would involve an external danger.

My concept is based on a belief that Freud's two views must be integrated in order to understand the whole picture. Thus, I have freed the first concept of its purely physiological foundation and have combined it with the second concept. Anxiety in general results not so much from a fear of our impulses as from a fear of our repressed impulses. It seems to me that the reason why Freud could not make good use of his first concept - though it was based on an ingenious psychological observation - lies in his having given it a physiological interpretation instead of raising the psychological question of what happens psychically within a person if he represses an impulse.

A second point of disagreement with Freud is of less theoretical but of all the more practical importance. I fully concur with his opinion that anxiety may result from every impulse of which the expression would incur an external danger. Sexual impulses may certainly be of this kind, but only so long as a strict individual and social taboo resting on them renders them dangerous. From this point of view the frequency with which anxiety is generated by sexual impulses is largely dependent on the existing cultural attitude toward sexuality. I do not see that sexuality as such is a specific source of anxiety. I do believe, however, that there is such a specific source in hostility, or more accurately in repressed hostile impulses. To put the concept I have represented in this chapter into simple, practical terms: whenever I find anxiety or indications of it, the questions that come to my mind are, what sensitive spot has been hurt and has consequently provoked hostility, and what accounts for the necessity of repression? My experience is that a search in these directions often leads to a satisfactory understanding of anxiety.

A third point in which I find myself at variance with Freud is his assumption that anxiety is generated only in childhood, starting with the alleged anxiety at birth mid proceeding to castration fear, and that anxiety occurring later in life is based on reactions which have remained infantile. "There is no doubt that persons whom we call neurotic remain infantile in their attitude towards danger, and have not grown out of antiquated conditions for anxiety."

Let us consider separately the elements contained in this interpretation. Freud asserts that during childhood we are particularly prone to react with anxiety. This is an undisputed fact, and one for which there are good and understandable reasons, lying in the child's comparative helplessness against adverse influences. In fact in character neuroses it is invariably found that the formation of anxiety started in early childhood, or at least that the foundation of what I have called basic anxiety was laid in that time. Besides this, however, Freud believes that the anxiety in adult neuroses is still tied up with the conditions, which originally provoked it. This means, for instance, that an adult man would be just as much harassed by fear of castration, though in modified forms, as he had been as a boy. No doubt, there are rare cases in which an infantile anxiety reaction may with appropriate provocations re-emerge in later life in unchanged form. But as a rule what we find is, in a phrase, not repetition but development. In cases in which the analysis allows us a pretty complete understanding of how a neurosis has developed we may find an uninterrupted chain of reactions from early anxiety to adult peculiarities. Therefore, the later anxiety will contain, among others, elements conditioned by the specific conflicts existing in childhood. However, the anxiety as a whole is not an infantile reaction. To consider it as such would be to confuse two different things, to mistake for an infantile attitude an attitude merely generated in childhood. With at least as much justification as calling anxiety an infantile reaction one might call it a precocious grown-up attitude in a child.

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