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Медицинский английский онлайн урок: Six Different Liver Diseases, All Known by a Common Name: Hepatitis. Разговорное занятие в рамках курса Английский язык для врачей +RANDOM
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Медицинский английский онлайн урок: Six Different Liver Diseases, All Known by a Common Name: Hepatitis. Разговорное занятие в рамках курса Английский язык для врачей +RANDOM

Английский язык для медиков. Английский для врачей эндокринологов - скачать подкаст бесплатно(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Курс Английский для врачей проводится для моих онлайн учеников начального и среднего уровней, которым нужно быстро научиться читать медицинскую литературу, общаться с пациентами-иностранцами и своими коллегами, говорящими на английском языке. Хотя тема каждого урока привязана к определенной медицинской специальности, мы также отрабатываем общемедицинскую лексику и упражняемся в грамматических конструкциях, которые позволят врачу в общении с пациентом.

Все тексты и вся лексика начитаны носителями языка - профессиональными врачами и США и Великобритании. Каждый урок включает мои подробные объяснения лексики, грамматики и интенсивную разговорную практику.

Каждая тема изучается в течение 18 академических часов. Изучение каждой темы строится по следующей схеме:

  • 9 часов - отработка произношения и восприятия на слух медицинских текстов и разгворной речи носителей английского языка, обсуждающих вопросы лечения пациентов;
  • 4 часа - практическая отработка грамматических конструкций, используемых для общения с пациентом и врачами, мы учимся задавать различные виды вопросов, давать отрицательные и утвердительные ответы;
  • 5 часов - интенсивная разговорная практика, в ходе которой один из учеников является врачом, проводящим прием, (обычно это врач соответствующей профессии), а все остальные ученики - пациентами на приеме, жалующимися на симптомы или обсуждающими процедуры лечения.

Сегодняшний урок я провожу для врачей, которые изучают английский язык онлайн по моему интенсивному курсу. В ходе нашего сегодняшнего урока мы изучим грамматическую тему Английское настоящее неопределенное время Present Indefinite или Present Simple, а также отработаем чтение текста на медицинскую тематику.

Six Different Liver Diseases, All Known by a Common Name: Hepatitis

This is Science in the news in Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

And I'm Shirley Griffith. This week, we will tell about six diseases of the liver. The six diseases come from six different viruses. Doctors have one name for all of them: hepatitis.

The liver is in the upper right part of the stomach. This dark, red organ is big. It weighs more than one kilogram. And, it has a big job. The liver helps clean the blood and fight infection. It also helps break down food and store energy until the body needs it.

Hepatitis destroys liver cells. Some kinds of hepatitis are much more serious than others. Scientists have identified the six kinds of hepatitis with the letters A, B, C, D, E and G. Which kind a person has can only be known from tests for antibodies in the blood.

Antibodies are special proteins that the body's natural defenses against disease produce in answer to a threat. Identify the antibody and you identify the threat.

Hepatitis A is usually spread through human waste in water or food. It is in the same group of viruses as those that cause the disease polio.

The hepatitis A virus causes high body temperature, weakness and pain. It causes problems with the stomach and intestines, making it difficult to eat or break down food. Also, the skin of a person with hepatitis may become yellow. This is a sign that the liver is not operating normally.

To help prevent the spread of hepatitis A, people should wash their hands after they use the restroom or change a baby's diaper. People should also wash their hands before they eat or prepare food.

Hepatitis A can spread quickly to hundreds or thousands of people. But the virus is deadly in less than one percent of cases. Many people infected with the virus never even get sick. But those who do generally recover within two months.

The World Health Organization says hepatitis A is often found in Africa, Asia and Central and South America. People who have had hepatitis A cannot get it again. There is a vaccine to prevent hepatitis A. America's Center for Disease Control says the vaccine is the best way to protect against the disease.

The World Health Organization says as many as two billion people are infected with the hepatitis B virus. More than three hundred fifty million of those infected have lifelong infections. W.H.O. officials say an estimated six hundred thousand people die each year as a result of hepatitis B.

The virus is in the same group as the herpes and smallpox viruses. Hepatitis B vaccines have been given since the nineteen eighties. The W.H.O. says the vaccine is ninety five percent effective in preventing the development of infection in both children and adults.

Hepatitis B spreads when blood from an infected person enters the body of another person. An infected mother can infect her baby. The virus can also spread through sexual activity, and if people share injection devices.

Blood products from an infected person can spread hepatitis B. People also can get infected if they share personal-care products that might have blood on them. Examples include toothbrushes and hair-cutting instruments.

Worldwide, most hepatitis B infections are found in children. Young children are the ones most likely to develop a lifelong, or chronic, infection. The risk of such an infection is small for children older than four years.

About ninety percent of babies infected with hepatitis B during the first year develop chronic infections. Such persons are at high risk of death from liver disease or liver cancer. The hepatitis B vaccine is considered to be the first medicine that can protect people against liver cancer.

Hepatitis C is even more dangerous. Like hepatitis B, it spreads when blood from an infected person enters someone who is not infected.

The hepatitis C virus belongs to the same group of viruses as yellow fever and West Nile virus. Most people living with hepatitis C develop chronic infections, often without any signs. They are at high risk for liver disease and liver cancer.

The World Health Organization says about one hundred seventy million people are infected with hepatitis C. That is three percent of the population of the world! The W.H.O. also says that as many as four million more become infected each year. It warns that those infected may develop diseases of the liver, including liver cancer. The W.H.O. says the highest rates of infection are in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America.

Scientists have been working to develop a vaccine against hepatitis C. The virus was first observed in nineteen seventy-four. But it was not officially recognized as a new kind of hepatitis until nineteen eighty-nine.

The Center for Disease Control says about three million Americans are infected with hepatitis C. It says that those especially at risk include persons who inject themselves with drugs and those who received blood or blood products before nineteen ninety.

Hepatitis D is spread through blood, but only infects people who already have hepatitis B. The hepatitis D virus greatly increases the chance of severe liver damage. Experts say the virus infects about fifteen million people around the world. They say it also appears in five percent of persons infected with hepatitis B.

Doctors say the best way to prevent hepatitis D is to get vaccine that protects against hepatitis B. Doctors can treat some cases of hepatitis B, C and D. The drugs used are costly, however. But they are less costly than another treatment: getting a new liver.

The fifth virus is hepatitis E. Experts say it spreads the same way as hepatitis A -- through infectious waste. Cases often result from polluted supplies of drinking water. Medical science recognized hepatitis E as a separate disease in nineteen eighty.

Hepatitis E is also found in animal waste. Studies have shown that the virus can infect many kinds of animals.

The W.H.O. says many hepatitis E cases have been reported in Central and Southeast Asia, North and West Africa and Mexico. No vaccines or medicines are effective against hepatitis E. Most people recover, usually in several weeks or months. But the disease can cause liver damage. And, in some cases, hepatitis E can be deadly.

The virus is especially dangerous to pregnant women. Twenty percent of such women living with hepatitis E die in the last three months of pregnancy.

Scientists discovered yet another kind of hepatitis in the nineteen nineties. It has been named hepatitis G. The hepatitis G virus is totally different from any of the other hepatitis viruses.

Donald Poretz is an infectious disease specialist in Washington, D.C. He says the hepatitis G virus is spread through blood and blood products. But he says the virus has not been found to cause any real disease.

The World Hepatitis Alliance works to increase knowledge about the dangers of hepatitis. The group says people should know that the disease kills about one million five hundred thousand people each year. It also says one in twelve people worldwide are living with hepatitis B or hepatitis C. And, it says, most of those infected do not even know it.

Hepatitis cannot be cured. The only way to protect against infection is to receive vaccines against hepatitis A and B, and to avoid contact with the other viruses. And that may be difficult.

Remember that some kinds of hepatitis spread through sex or sharing needles. Blood products should be carefully tested for hepatitis. People in high-risk groups and those who have had hepatitis should not give blood. They also should not agree to provide their organs to others after they die. Donated organs can also spread hepatitis.

Health experts say people can take other steps to protect themselves. These include always washing your hands with soap and water after using the restroom. Also, wash your hands after changing a baby's diaper and before preparing or eating food.

Experts say travelers should not drink water of unknown quality when visiting foreign or unknown areas. Visitors to such areas also should avoid eating uncooked fruits and vegetables. And, again, do not forget to wash your hands!

Общее событие
Разговорное занятие на английском языке с Наташей Быстровой: самостоятельно покупаем билеты на самолет онлайн и бронируем отель +RANDOM
20:00 » 23:55
 

Разговорное занятие на английском языке с Наташей Быстровой: самостоятельно покупаем билеты на самолет онлайн и бронируем отель +RANDOM

Сегодня мы проведем разговорное занятие для изучающих английский язык по Интенсивной программе. Наташа Быстрова, с которой мы проработали материалы по теме Туристический английский, самостоятельно составила себе тур на Мальту, общаясь с менеджерами, турагентами, хотельерами, экскурсоводами и таксистами на английском языке. В ходе сегодняшнего урока ученики-интенсивники будут задавать Наташе вопросы по самостоятельной организации поездки на отдых.

Мы уже выучили необходимую лексику ранее, тем не менее следующие фразы и выражения помогут Вам сформулировать вопросы.

How to Book A Flight Online?

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What we're going to do now is, I'm going to give you tips on ways to find cheap flights and get a great deal on your travel package. I like the Internet because there is so many things you can look up and there is so many resources to get cheap flights and to get cheap, or get discounted prices on hotels, car rentals and even your transportation to and from your home to the airport, or vice versa. One of the, just to mention a few, one of the websites is Priceline.com. I love Priceline.com because you can actually put in your price on what you want to pay for a flight or for a hotel, and depending on if the hotel accepts it or not, then you've just created your own price for what you want to spend on your flight, and what you want to spend on your hotel which is awesome. They have great discounts. Another website you can go to is Cheaptickets, you can also do a mass Google search, and when I do a mass Google search I look up hotels, I look up car rental places, and I also look up flights. Airlines, you want to make sure you compare the prices before your purchase anything. You can go to different airlines, call, ask them about the date and ask them about the flight, what they have available, and go ahead if it sounds like a good deal and you're pretty crunched for time, go ahead and reserve it. You have more or, you have like a 24-hour grace period, so you can shop around for that whole 24 hours and see if you find a different flight for a lower price. You can also do the same thing for hotels. Now, hotels require you to put a deposit on your credit card. So, I go ahead, I look online, and I see if there's any discounted prices. If you're a AAA member, you may get a discount price. There is so many different stipulations to get discounts, so when you call ask about discounts. Don't be afraid, because they have them out there for us. So, we're working on our flight, and you call, say you call the airlines and you get a price, you hold the ticket. A place like Priceline on the Internet, if you find a price for say it's $100 less, what they require you to do is go ahead and pay for that upfront. So, when you're working with websites you want to make sure that you know for sure that you're traveling, know for sure that you're going to go, and that there is nothing pretty much holding you back. If you're unsure, wait until you're sure to purchase your tickets on websites.

Use your home or office computer to book your reservations for business or pleasure traveling. The process is not complicated, but it can be intimidating for the first-time user. Airline websites and commercial booking services are user-friendly, and if you have questions, take advantage of FAQ pages or make a call to customer service. Begin the process and you will have your reservations in minutes.

  1. Search online for the website of the airline you wish to use or locate an online booking service.
  2. Enter information regarding your desired departure airport, destination airport and dates for flying. This basic information is usually requested on the home page. There may be additional information requested here as well. The various airline sites and booking services vary slightly in the order in which they ask for your information. Press the search or continue button after you enter your information.
  3. Study the flights offered. You can narrow your choices by customizing your search with additional information. For example, narrow your search by choosing a direct flight with no stops, a flight with stops but no plane changes or a flight with plane changes. Make your choice and go to the next page.
  4. Supply additional information as requested. This may include codes for discounts, flight insurance and special needs information. The site will ask for personal information such as address and telephone number. You must give your full name, birth date and gender as required by the TSA.
  5. Enter your email address where indicated so that you can receive your flight confirmation.
  6. Fill in your payment information. You will need a valid credit card. Debit cards may be used, but keep in mind that they generally have daily limits on the amount you can withdraw.
  7. Complete your purchase following any prompts given during checkout.
  8. Watch for your confirmation email, which should arrive within minutes of making your reservation. Print it out so that you can take it with you to the airport.

How to Book Flight Tickets?

Booking flight tickets used to be a matter of calling your travel agent and letting her do all of your travel arrangements. If you didn't use a travel agent, the airlines would be happy to book your flight on one of their scheduled routes. Online booking allows you to compare pricing and schedules across airlines. Some sites check other sites as well as the airline databases. With e-ticketing solutions, all you need to do is show up at the airport.

  1. Prepare yourself with your travel dates, times, departure and arrival airport codes before you start searching for flights. You will need to enter this information at each website. Have a credit card handy for purchasing a ticket.
  2. Use Kayak's simple interface to compare flight information from four different sites to the information Kayak returns. Sign up for weekly top-travel-deal emails if you're able to travel when fares change.
  3. Compare multiple airlines at Orbitz. Choosing the Quick Search option returns a selection of flights with the cost of each. Orbitz charges no extra fees for booking flights.
  4. Use Bing's Know When to Buy feature to predict if your ticket price is likely to increase or decrease in the future. Bing searches more than 100 travel websites and returns flight information for you to compare.
  5. Search over 140 travel sites with Booking Buddy and sign up for its travel-deals newsletter. Follow price reductions with Hotwire's Trip Watcher.
  6. Take advantage of price guarantees from Expedia and Travelocity. If you find a lower fare within 24 hours after booking with either company, it'll refund the difference and give you $50 off a future trip.
  7. Set your own price by bidding on tickets at Priceline if you're flexible about airlines and times. Priceline also offers a standard flight-search option.
  8. Look for inexpensive tickets at Cheapflights. If your dates are flexible, the site searches for deals. A search by date gives returns from eight other sites. Sign up for its weekly deals newsletter.

How to Book a Hotel Yourself?

Obviously, if you are going away for longer than a day and have no relatives or friends to stay with there, your best choice is to book a hotel, a hostel or a b'n'b. Most resorts have hundreds of them; some, like Ibiza or Malta have thousands. But if you want the best deals and the most pleasurable time, follow these tips.

  1. Decide on a hotel. Does it fit the travel budget? Is there any extra cost to having kids share a room? What type of room is needed? All are questions that should be answered when renting a hotel room.
  2. Search for hotel deals on major travel sites like Travelocity, Priceline, Kayak.com etc. You can even compare hotels within each site by checking the box next to hotels you like and then clicking on 'Compare' button. This way, you will have page view of three hotels side-by-side that you can also print for later review. Some hotels do not include free internet, breakfast etc. That can be seen using the 'Compare' feature.
  3. Check the hotel web site, if available, or check travel web sites for hotel reviews. Check with your travel agent about the accommodations.
  4. Call the hotel directly. While you may get a better deal on discount travel web sites, they probably won't tell you about exclusive special deals. Make sure you politely ask if they have discounts, and they will tell you if they have or not.
  5. Ask the clerk any questions you might have when making the hotel reservation. If you get it done now, you won't get frustrated later. You may need to ask about parking, pets, smoking, if it is on a steep hill, etc.
  6. Request an information packet or brochure about the hotel, to ensure that you know exactly what to expect.
  7. Confirm the reservation and write down the reservation number.
  8. Confirm the hotel's cancellation policy.

How to Book a Hotel Without a Credit Card?

Most people think they need a credit card to make a hotel reservation. But this often isn't true. Instead, a traveler can use a debit card, or even cash, to secure accommodations. In rare cases, a hotel may accept bank account information in lieu of plastic. Finding a hotel that takes cash or debit instead of credit can take some work. However, many locations want your business and will make the transaction happen. So don't count out travel because of debts or the desire to live a cash-based life.

  1. Use a debit card with a Visa or MasterCard logo to make your reservation. Often, the hotel reservation system doesn't even recognize that you're not using a credit card. Still, check before using this method to see if the hotel charges fees for such transactions; otherwise, you might have an unexpected debit from your checking account to cover the fee.
  2. Call ahead to see what the hotel's policies are regarding debit and cash reservations. Some hotels will accept a debit card but at check-in will withdraw a fully refundable amount per day to cover incidentals, such as the minibar or pay-per-view movies. Even more hotels will accept cash along with checking account information. Others won't accept anything but a credit card.
  3. Offer the hotel manager a cash deposit covering several nights' stay. The website Creditcard.org advises, "Do not berate the hotel for wanting money up front (when you book with a credit card, the hotel is 98 percent likely to collect your money). People with no credit card greatly increase the hotel's risk in having you stay there." An upfront cash amount will do much to assure the management that you're responsible and able to handle the liability for the room.
  4. Inquire at small, local nonchain hotels in addition to corporate establishments. A local hotel may be more amenable to working with cash, since it's not tied to any sort of corporate procedures. If any local residents are willing to vouch for you, ask the hotel manager to call them for a reference. The extra tie to the community may raise the manager's confidence level, making it more likely that you'll land the room.
  5. Set up a PayPal online payment account to reserve the room. PayPal is an accepted method of payment on several travel sites, and you only need a bank account to use the service. Therefore, a credit card wouldn't be necessary to pay for a reservation. Call the hotel ahead of time to find out about fees for incidentals and whether they're payable through PayPal.

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