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Этот курс английского онлайн поможет вам быстро выучить фонетику в английском языке. Как читать английский алфавит с произношением и транскрипцией, английские буквы и звуки?
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Этот курс английского онлайн поможет вам быстро выучить фонетику в английском языке. Как читать английский алфавит с произношением и транскрипцией, английские буквы и звуки?

На первых этапах изучения английского языка на онлайн уроках у учащихся часто складывается ложное впечатление о сложностях освоения фонетики английского языка для начинающих. Я часто общаюсь с новыми учениками, которые уже пытались ранее выучить английскую фонетику, но не смогли уверенно освоить английский алфавит с хорошим произношением и английской транскрипцией.

Однако, несмотря на эти сложности, я совершенно уверен, что мнение о сложностях английского произношения и фонетики английского языка, которое сложилось в среде изучающий английский язык с нуля, предвзято и совершенно необоснованно.

Многие ученики, приходящие на занятия с учителем английского онлайн через скайп, говорят мне, что-де выучить английский алфавит с транскрипцией онлайн и хорошим английским произношением невозможно да и не особенно нужно на начальном этапе изучения языка. С этим утверждением никак нельзя согласиться. Как раз наоборот: прорабатывать английский алфавит, звуки в английском языке и чтение транскрипции нужно, начиная с самых первых уроков! Сразу же поставить хорошее английское произношение, научить читать английские буквы и звуки совсем несложно - это всего лишь вопрос правильного подхода и методики. Опытный онлайн репетитор английского языка по Skype сможет поставить хорошее произношение всего за несколько уроков.

Правильное произношение английских букв и соответствующих им звуков в английском языке. Учим английский алфавит с транскрипцией и произношением

При отсутствии последовательного и системного подхода к изучению английского онлайн на начальном этапе у учащихся нередко складывается ложное впечатление о трудностях произношения и освоения фонетики английского для начинающих. Я сплошь и рядом встречаюсь с новыми учениками, которые ранее уже пытались ранее выучить английскую фонетику, но не смогли полноценно освоить английский алфавит с транскрипцией и произношением.

Тем не менее, я хочу опять-таки повторит, и об этом свидетельствует весь мой 20-летний опыт репетитора английского языка онлайн, что мнение о сложностях английской фонетики необоснованно и предвзято. Выучить алфавит в английском языке с транскрипцией и произношением уже на самых первых уроках совершенно несложно - это вопрос правильного подхода и методики.

Как выучить английскую фонетику: буквы и соответствующие им звуки в английской речи, алфавит с транскрипцией и произношением? Быстрый и простой способ научиться читать английские слова онлайн

Многие ученики не считают необходимым учить английскую фонетику вообще - буквы и соответствующие им звуки в английском с транскрипцией и произношением представляются им ненужной китайской азбукой. "Зачем заниматься всем этим," - говорят они, - "ведь все равно как-нибудь иностранцы меня поймут?"

Хочу сказать, что, опираясь на свой 20-летней опыте преподавания английского языка, что многие люди, вроде бы выучившие английский язык, и даже более-менее понимающие английскую речь, зачастую вообще не имеют навыков разговора по-английски и совершенно ужасно читают английские тексты даже самого элементарного уровня.

Я уверен, что эта неспособность освоить английскую фонетику связана с тем, что на еще на самых первых стадиях обучения им не дали в должном объеме английской фонетики, правил чтения английского алфавита с транскрипцией и произношением; на самых первых уроках такие ученики не научились читать английские буквы и соответствующие им звуки, не освоили правила чтения звуков в английских словах, и проигнорировали постановку произношения в английском языке.

Возможно, некоторые из моих новых учеников английского языка и не согласятся со столь категоричным утверждением, что плохое произношение и проблемы общения на английском языке преследуют ученика с самых первых недоученных уроков английского из-за того, что не были освоены буквы и соответствующие им звуки в английском языке, не выучен алфавит с произношением и транскрипцией, и, как следствие, ученик так и не научился правильно читать английские слова онлайн, а потом сложилось ложное представление, что учить английскую фонетику вообще необязательно.

Однако любой опытный учитель английского языка онлайн по скайпу скажет Вам, что алфавит в английском с его сложным произношением и транскрипцией в сочетании со знанием английских букв и соответствующих им звуков и фонетических знаков являются основой основ правильного английского произношения.

Репетитор английского языка на онлайн уроках через Skype научит Вас читать английский алфавит

Я преподаю английский язык всю жизнь - двадцать лет - из которых более шести лет я работаю репетитором английского по скайпу. За все долгие годы моего преподавания, мне встретились едва ли пара десятков человек, которые бы могли читать алфавит в английском языке с правильным произношением, знали алфавит с транскрипцией, могли бы без ошибок называть английские буквы и соответствующие им звуки, а также устойчиво знали правила чтения английских слов. Скорее, либо эти ученики читали буквы английского алфавита и соответствующие им звуки по наитию, либо этот навык у них отсутствовал вообще.

Понятное дело, что проблема с незнанием фонетики приводит не только к неумению правильно говорить: сплошь и рядом можно встретить людей, которые способны составить деловое письмо по-английски, но совершенно неспособны объясниться - произношение настолько плохое, что носитель не понимает, что ему говорят.

Незнание и непонимание того, каким именно образом нужно произносить английские буквы и соответствующие им звуки, приводит еще и к тому, что ученик оказывается неспособным понимать английскую речь на слух, в особенности, когда говорит носитель языка - такой учащийся просто не предполагает, что английские слова могут произносится таким образом.

Опытный онлайн репетитор английского языка по скайпу объяснит правила чтения английских букв и звуков

Все двадцать лет преподавания я не перестаю изумляться тому, как многие ученики готовы мучаться годами с неправильным произношением и неумением понять окружающих, хотя правила чтения английских букв и соответствующих им звуков, а затем и все правила фонетики английского языка можно полностью освоить в течение пары месяцев, параллельно продолжая учить английскую грамматику, лексику и даже занимаясь разговорной практикой для начинающих.

Сказанное выше в полной мере справедливо и в отношении постановки английского произношения у начинающих - я постоянно сталкиваюсь с этой проблемой как репетитор английского языка по Skype. Английский алфавит с произношением - это первое, что нужно освоить в новом для себя английском языке - никаких трудностей это не представляет, просто, как показывает моя практика преподавания фонетики английского языка онлайн, зачастую этому не уделяется должного внимания.

Алфавит в английском языке с произношением и транскрипцией на английских онлайн уроках по скайпу

На своих уроках английского языка через скайп я всегда даю начинающим ученика очень полезный совет: приступая к освоению английского языка по Skype через интернет, уже на первых же уроках с сразу же выучите английский алфавит с произношением, заучите написание и произношение английских букв и соответствующих им звуков, проработайте английский алфавит с правильным произношением и транскрипцией на онлайн-курсах английского языка через Skype.

Первое, что потребуется сделать онлайн репетитору английского языка при проведении урока по скайпу, - это объяснить Вам основные правила чтения английских слов, рассказать, как читать английские слова онлайн как произносить английские буквы, и сразу же поставить Вам красивое английское произношение с правильным произношением английских звуков, интонацией и паузами.

Первоочередная задача при изучении на онлайн уроках английского фонетики - это наработать навык произношения английских букв и соответствующие им звуки не по-русски, заменяя их на знакомые русскому уху звуки, а читать английские буквы и звуки так, как их произносят носители английского языка - без каких-либо дефектов и искажений.

Произнесение букв и звуков в английском языке. Английские гласные и согласные буквы и их чтение во фразах и выражениях

Произнесение букв и звуков в английском языке различается по диалектам, которых существует великое множество, тем не менее, существует ряд общих особенностей, присущих в целом произношению в английском языке. На наших уроках английского языка онлайн через скайп мы изучаем эти общие закономерности говорим по-английски с учетом этих особенностей.

Эти особенности произношения букв и звуков в английском языке касаются не только темы нашего сегодняшнего урока английского онлайн для начинающих учащихся - английский алфавит с транскрипцией и произношением, английский алфавит с произношением, как читать английский алфавит, английские буквы и звуки, - но и всей английской фонетики в общем.

При произнесении согласных английских букв и соответствующих им звуков в английском Вам потребуется следить за отличным от русского языка положением речевого аппарата: английские буквы и их чтение отличаются положением языка, челюстей и губ. В том, чтобы выучить английскую фонетику и, уже на первом этапе освоить чтение английского алфавита с правильным произношением, нет ничего сложного и для каждого согласного есть достаточно простые описания этого положения.

А при произнесении гласных английских букв и соответствующих им звуков важно постоянно иметь в виду, что большинство из гласных звуков в английском языке являются парными, и при этом английские гласные звуки в каждой паре очень ясно различимы (точно так же, как в русском языке достаточно ясно различимы, например, звуки ы и и).

Как правильно подготовиться к онлайн уроку по скайпу на чтение английских букв и соответствующих им звуков?

Наши онлайн уроки английского через скайп позволяют быстро набрать навыки произношения английских букв и звуков, однако к урокам по фонетике нужно готовиться заранее: даже если у вас очень мало времени, непременно прослушайте английские буквы и соответствующие им звуки, начитанные носителем английского языка:

Носитель английского языка рассказывает, как читать буквы в английском алфавите скачать онлайн mp3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Если у Вы располагаете хотя бы одним часом свободного времени до урока, чтобы самостоятельно потренироваться в чтении английских звуков и соответствующих букв онлайн, прослушайте мой онлайнурок, на котором я объясняю, как читать английский алфавит:

Как выучить английскую фонетику онлайн скачать бесплатно mp3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

В ходе следующих уроков английского языка через Скайп (вы можете скачать запись по ссылкам ниже) я объясняю как читается английский алфавит с произношением и транскрипцией:

Как читается алфавит в английском языке с транскрипцией и c произношением скачать бесплатно mp3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Также узнать, как читается алфавит в английском языке с произношением и с транскрипцией можно из урока с подробным разбором правильного произношения английского фонетического алфавита:

Английский алфавит с транскрипцией и c произношением скачать бесплатно mp3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Подробное объяснение английского алфавита с транскрипцией и с правильным произношением можно узнать из этого урока английского онлайн по Skype. Английские буквы и их транскрипция станут Вам понятны из этих уроков, здесь же я объясняю, как читать английские слова онлайн. Обратите особое внимание на произношение звуков и на то, как нужно читать английский алфавит с произношением - скачайте урок бесплатно mp3

Английские буквы и их транскрипция и соответствующие им звуки скачать mp3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Я подробно разъясню правила чтения английского алфавита с произношением и ударением в ходе еще одного урока:

Как читать английские буквы и как читать английские слова онлайн урок - скачать бесплатно mp3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Как читать английские буквы и как читать английские слова - эта тема раскрывается в ходе урока ниже:

Носитель языка читает английский алфавит с транскрипцией и c произношением:

Hello everyone, in this session we will practise the English alphabet. It's very important for you to spell the names of people and addresses properly.

The letters of the English alphabet are pronounced as follows.

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z.

Now, you will hear those letters which have similar sounds grouped together:

In the first group there are the letters that sound like similar to word age

A, H, J, K

The letters in the second group sound similar to the word see:

B, C, D, E, G, P, T, V.

The letters in the third group sound similar to the word ten:

F, L, M, N, S, X.

The letters in group number four sound similar to the word drive:

I, Y.

Then there is the letter O as in the word home.

In the next group the letters sound like in the word too:

Q, U, W.

And finally there is the letter R which sounds like the word car, bar, scar.

Now, can you spell your name? My name is spelled as follows:

D, A, R, V, I, L, L, (or double L) E.

My first name is Sue, that's spelled:

S, U, E.

Now, can you write down the following words:

B, U, S, I, N, E, S, S, or double S.

C, O, M, P, U, T, E, R,

M, A, N, A, G, E, R,

E, N, G, I, N, E, E, R,

E, X, E, C, U, T, I, V, E.

Английские буквы, их транскрипция и соответствующие им звуки:

A a [eI]

B b [bJ]

C c [sJ]

D d [dJ]

E e [J]

F f [ef]

G g [GJ]

H h [eIC]

I i [aI]

J j [GeI]

K k [keI]

L l [el]

M m [em]

N n [en]

O o [ou]

P p [pJ]

Q q [kjH]

R r [R] (амер. [Rr])

S s [es]

T t [tJ]

U u [jH]

V v [vJ]

W w ['dAbljH]

X x [eks]

Y y [waI]

Z z [zed] (амер. [zJ])

Общее событие
Английский онлайн - английская медицинская лексика. Медицинская лексика для врачей, изучающих английский язык, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time
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Английский онлайн - английская медицинская лексика. Медицинская лексика для врачей, изучающих английский язык, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time

ВАЖНО! К практическим урокам в рамках курса Английский язык для врачей не существует аудиозаписей - вся работа ведется с учениками вживую прямо на онлайн уроке!

английский язык онлайн для врачей и медиков english online

Chapter 5: The Basic Structure of Neuroses

An anxiety may be fully accounted for by the actual conflict situation. If, however, we find an anxiety-creating situation in a character neurosis we always have to reckon with previously existing anxieties in order to explain why in that particular instance hostility arose and was repressed. We shall find then that this previous anxiety was in turn the result of a pre-existing hostility, and so on. In order to understand how the whole development started we have to go back to childhood.

This will be one of the few occasions on which I deal with the question of childhood experiences. The reason why I shall make less reference to childhood than is customary in psychoanalytical literature is not that I think the experiences of childhood are less significant than do other psychoanalytical writers, but that in this book I am dealing with the actual structure of the neurotic personality rather than with the individual experiences leading up to it. In examining the childhood histories of great numbers of neurotic persons I have found that the common denominator in all of them is an environment showing the following characteristics in various combinations.

The basic evil is invariably a lack of genuine warmth and affection. A child can stand a great deal of what is often regarded as traumatic - such as sudden weaning, occasional beating, sex experiences - as long as inwardly he feels wanted and loved. Needless to say, a child feels keenly whether love is genuine, and cannot be fooled by any faked demonstrations. The main reason why a child does not receive enough warmth and affection lies in the parents' incapacity to give it on account of their own neuroses. More frequently than not, in my experience, the essential lack of warmth is camouflaged, and the parents claim to have in mind the child's best interest. Educational theories, oversolicitude or the self-sacrificing attitude of an "ideal" mother are the basic factors contributing to an atmosphere that more than anything else lays the cornerstone for future feelings of immense insecurity.

Furthermore, we find various actions or attitudes on the part of the parents that cannot but arouse hostility, such as preference for other children, unjust reproaches, unpredictable changes between overindulgence and scornful rejection, unfulfilled promises, and not least important, an attitude toward the child's needs, which goes through all gradations from temporary inconsideration to a consistent interfering with the most legitimate wishes of the child, such as disturbing friendships, ridiculing independent thinking, spoiling its interest in its own pursuits, whether artistic, athletic or mechanical - altogether an attitude of the parents, which if not in intention nevertheless in effect means breaking the child's will.

In psychoanalytic literature concerning the factors that arouse a child's hostility the main emphasis is placed on frustration of the child's wishes, particularly those in the sexual sphere, and on jealousy. It is possible that infantile hostility arises in part because of the forbidding cultural attitude toward pleasure in general and infantile sexuality in particular, whether the latter concerns sexual curiosity, masturbation or sexual games with other children. But frustration is certainly not the only source of a rebellious hostility. Observation shows beyond any doubt that children, as well as adults, can accept a great many deprivations if they feel the deprivations to be just, fair, necessary or purposeful. A child does not mind education for cleanliness, for example, if the parents do not put an undue stress on it and do not coerce the child with subtle or gross cruelty. Nor does a child mind an occasional punishment, provided it feels certain in general of being loved and provided it feels the punishment to be fair and not done with the intention of hurting it or humiliating it. The question of whether frustration as such incites to hostility is difficult to judge, because in surroundings, which impose many deprivations on a child plenty of other provocative factors are usually present. What matters is the spirit in which frustrations are imposed rather than the frustrations themselves.

The reason I stress this point is that the emphasis often placed on the danger of frustration as such has led many parents to carry the idea still farther than did Freud himself and to shrink from any interference with the child lest he might be harmed by it.

Jealousy can certainly be a source of formidable hatred in children as well as in adults. There is no doubt about the role that jealousy between siblings and jealousy of one or the other parent may play in neurotic children, or about the lasting influence this attitude may have for later life. The question does arise, however, as to the conditions which generate this jealousy. Are jealous reactions as they are observed in sibling rivalry and in the Oedipus complex bound to arise in every child, or are they provoked by definite conditions.

Freud's observations concerning the Oedipus complex were made on neurotic persons. In them he found that high-pitched jealousy reactions concerning one of the parents were sufficiently destructive in kind to arouse fear and likely to exert lasting disturbing influences on character formation and personal relations. Observing this phenomenon frequently in neurotic per sons of our time, he assumed it to be universal. Not only did he assume the Oedipus complex to be the very kernel of neuroses, but also he tried to understand complex phenomena in other cultures on this basis. It is this generalization that is doubtful. Some jealousy reactions do arise easily in our culture in the relations between siblings as well as in those between parents and children, as they occur in every group living closely together. But there is no evidence that destructive and lasting jealousy reactions - and it is these we think of when talking of the Oedipus complex or of sibling rivalry - are in our culture, not to speak of other cultures, so common as Freud assumes. They are in general human reactions but are artificially generated through the atmosphere in which a child grows up.

Which factors in detail are responsible for generating jealousy we shall understand later when discussing the general implications of neurotic jealousy. Suffice it to mention here the lack of warmth and the spirit of competitiveness, which contribute to this result. Besides, neurotic parents who create the kind of atmosphere we have discussed are usually discontented with their lives, have no satisfactory emotional or sexual relations and hence are inclined to make children the objects of their love. They loose their need for affection on the children. Their expression of affection has not always a sexual coloring, but at any rate it is highly charged emotionally. I doubt very much that the sexual undercurrents in the child's relations to the parents would ever be strong enough to effect a potential disturbance. At any rate, I know of no case in which it was not neurotic parents who by terror and tenderness forced the child into these passionate attachments, with all the implications of possessiveness and jealousy described by Freud.

We are accustomed to believe that a hostile opposition to the family or to some member of it is unfortunate for the development of a child. It is unfortunate, of course, if the child has to fight against the actions of neurotic parents. If there are good reasons for opposition, however, the danger for the child's character formation lies not so much in feeling or expressing a protest, but in repressing it. There are several dangers arising from the repression of criticism, protest or accusations, and one is that the child is likely to take all the blame on itself and feel unworthy of love; the implications of this situation we shall discuss later. The danger that concerns us here is that repressed hostility may create anxiety and start the development we have discussed.

There are several reasons, effective in various degrees and combinations, why a child who grows up in such an atmosphere will repress hostility: helplessness, fear, love or feelings of guilt.

The helplessness of a child is often considered merely as a biological fact. Though the child is for long years factually dependent on its environment for the fulfilment of its needs - having less physical strength and less experience than the grown-ups - there is nevertheless too much emphasis on the biological aspect of the question. After the first two or three years of life there is a decided change from the prevailingly biological dependence to a kind of dependence that includes the mental, intellectual and spiritual life of the child. This continues until the child matures into early adulthood and is able to take life into its own hands. There are great individual differences, though, in the degree to which children remain dependent on their parents. It all depends on what the parents try to achieve in the education of their offspring: whether the tendency is to make a child strong, courageous, independent, capable of dealing with all sorts of situations, or whether the main tendency is to shelter the child, to make it obedient, to keep it ignorant of life as it is, or in short to infantilize it up to twenty years of age or longer. In children growing up under adverse conditions helplessness is usually artificially reinforced by intimidation, by babying or by bringing and keeping the child in a stage of emotional dependence. The more helpless a child is made the less will it dare to feel or show opposition, and the longer will such opposition be delayed. In this situation the underlying feeling - or what we may call the motto - is: I have to repress my hostility because I need you.

Fear may be aroused directly by threats, prohibitions and punishments, and by outbreaks of temper or violent scenes witnessed by a child; it may be aroused also by indirect intimidation, such as impressing the child with the great dangers of life - germs, street cars, strangers, uneducated children, climbing trees. The more apprehensive a child is made the less will it dare to show or even to feel hostility. Here the motto is: I have to repress my hostility because I am afraid of you.

Love may be another reason for repressing hostility. When genuine affection is absent there is often a great verbal emphasis on how much the parents love the child and how they would sacrifice for him up to the last drop of their blood. A child, particularly if otherwise intimidated, may cling to this substitute for love and fear to be rebellious lest it lose the reward for being docile. In such situations the motto is: I have to repress hostility for fear of losing love.

Thus far we have discussed situations in which a child represses his hostility against the parents because he is afraid that any expression of it would spoil his relations to the parents. He is motivated by plain fear that these powerful giants would desert him, withdraw their reassuring benevolence or turn against him. In addition, in our culture a child is usually made to feel guilty for any feelings or expressions of hostility or opposition; that is, he is made to feel unworthy or contemptible in his own eyes if he either expresses or feels resentment against the parents or if he breaks rules set up by them. These two reasons for feelings of guilt are closely interrelated. The more a child is made to feel guilty about trespassing on forbidden territory the less will he dare to feel spiteful or accusatory toward the parents.

In our culture the sexual sphere is the one in which guilt feelings are most frequently stimulated. Whether prohibitions are expressed by audible silence or by open threats and punishment, a child frequently comes to feel not only that sexual curiosity and activities are forbidden but that he is dirty and despicable if he indulges in them. If there are any sexual fantasies and wishes concerning one of the parents, these, too, though they remain unexpressed as a result of the forbidding attitude toward sexuality in general, are likely to make a child feel guilty. In this situation the motto is: I have to repress hostility because I would be a bad child if I felt hostile.

In various combinations any of the factors mentioned may bring a child to repress his hostility and eventually produce anxiety.

But does every infantile anxiety necessarily lead ultimately to a neurosis? Our knowledge is not advanced enough to answer this question adequately. My belief is that infantile anxiety is a necessary factor but not a sufficient cause for the development of a neurosis. It seems that favorable circumstances, such as an early change of surroundings or counteracting influences of any sort, may forestall a definite neurotic development. If, however, as frequently happens, living conditions are not of a kind to diminish the anxiety, then not only may this anxiety persist, but - as we shall see later - it is bound gradually to increase and to set in motion all the processes which constitute a neurosis.

Among the factors that may influence the further development of infantile anxiety there is one that I want to consider especially. It makes a great difference whether the reaction of hostility and anxiety is restricted to the surroundings which forced the child into it, or whether it develops into an attitude of hostility and anxiety toward people in general.

If a child is fortunate enough to have, for example, a loving grandmother, an understanding teacher, some good friends, his experience with them may prevent him from expecting nothing but bad from everybody. But the more difficult are his experiences in the family, the more will a child be inclined to develop not only a reaction of hatred toward the parents and other children but a distrustful or spiteful attitude toward everyone. The more a child is isolated and deterred from making other experiences of his own, the more such a development will be fostered. And finally, the more a child covers up his grudge against his own family, as for instance by conforming with his parents' attitudes, the more he projects his anxiety to the outside world and thus becomes convinced that the "world" in general is dangerous and frightening.

The general anxiety concerning the "world" may also develop or increase gradually. A child who has grown up in the kind of atmosphere described will not dare in his own contacts with others to be as enterprising or pugnacious as they. He will have lost the blissful certainty of being wanted and will take even a harmless teasing as a cruel rejection. He will be wounded and hurt more easily than others and will be less capable of defending himself.

The condition that is fostered or brought about by the factors I have mentioned, or by similar factors, is an insidiously increasing, all-pervading feeling of being lonely and helpless in a hostile world. The acute individual reactions to individual provocations crystallize into a character attitude. This attitude as such does not constitute a neurosis but it is the nutritive soil out of which a definite neurosis may develop at any time. Because of the fundamental role this attitude plays in neuroses I have given it a special designation: the basic anxiety; it is inseparably interwoven with a basic hostility.

In psychoanalysis, working through all the different individual forms of anxiety, one gradually recognizes the fact that the basic anxiety underlies all relationships to people. While the individual anxieties may be stimulated by actual cause, the basic anxiety continues to exist even though there is no particular stimulus in the actual situation. If the whole neurotic picture were compared to a state of political unrest in a nation, the basic anxiety and basic hostility would be similar to the underlying dissatisfactions with and protests against the regime. Surface manifestations may be entirely missing in either case, or they may appear in diversified forms. In the state they may appear as riots, strikes, assemblies, demonstrations; in the psychological sphere, too, the forms of anxiety may manifest themselves in symptoms of all sorts. Regardless of the particular provocation, all manifestations of the anxiety emanate from one common background.

In simple situation neuroses the basic anxiety is lacking. They are constituted by neurotic reactions to actual conflict situations on the part of individuals whose personal relations are undisturbed. The following may serve as an example of these cases as they frequently occur in a psychotherapeutic practice.

A woman of forty-five complained about heart - pounding and anxiety states at night, with profuse perspiration. There were no organic findings, and all the evidence suggested that she was a healthy person. The impression she gave was of a warmhearted and straightforward woman. Twenty years before, for reasons which lay not so much in herself as in the situation, she had married a man twenty-five years older than she. She had been very happy with him, had been satisfied sexually, had three children who had developed exceptionally well. She had been diligent and capable in housekeeping. In the past five or six years her husband had become somewhat cranky and sexually less potent, but she had endured this without any neurotic reaction. The trouble had started seven months before, when a likable, marriageable man of her own age had begun to pay her personal attention. What had happened was that she had developed a resentment against her aging husband but had entirely repressed this feeling for reasons that were very strong in view of her whole mental and social background and the basically good marriage relationship. With a little help in a few interviews she was able to face the conflict situation squarely and thereby rid herself of her anxiety.

Nothing can better indicate the importance of basic anxiety than a comparison of individual reactions in cases of character neurosis with those in cases, like the one just cited, which belong to the group of simple situation neuroses. The latter are found in healthy persons who for understandable reasons are incapable of solving a conflict situation consciously, that is, they are unable to face the existence and the nature of the conflict and hence are incapable of making a clear decision. One of the outstanding differences between the two types of neuroses is the great facility of therapeutic results in the situation neurosis. In character neuroses therapeutic treatment has to proceed under great difficulties and consequently extends over a long period of time, sometimes too long a period for the patient to wait to be cured; but the situation neurosis is comparatively easily solved. An understanding discussion of the situation is often not only a symptomatic but also a causal therapy. In other cases the causal therapy is the removal of the difficulty by changing the environment.

Thus while in situation neuroses we have the impression of an adequate relation between conflict situation and neurotic reaction, this relation seems to be missing in character neuroses. Because of the existing basic anxiety, the slightest provocation may elicit the most intense reaction, as we shall see later in more detail.

Although the range of manifest forms of anxiety, or the protection against it, is infinite and varies with each individual, the basic anxiety is more or less the same everywhere, varying only in extent and intensity. It may be roughly described as a feeling of being small, insignificant, helpless, deserted, endangered, in a world that is out to abuse, cheat, attack, humiliate, betray, envy. One patient of mine expressed this feeling in a picture she drew spontaneously, in which she was sitting ill the midst of a scene as a tiny, helpless, naked baby, surrounded by all sorts of menacing monsters, human and animal, ready to attack her.

In psychoses one will often find a rather high degree of awareness of the existence of such an anxiety. In paranoid patients this anxiety is restricted to one or several definite persons; in schizophrenic patients there is often a keen awareness of the potential hostility of the world around them, so much so that they are inclined to take even a kindness shown to them as implying potential hostility.

In neuroses, however, there is rarely an awareness of the existence of the basic anxiety, or of the basic hostility, at least not of the weight and significance it has for the entire life. A patient of mine who saw herself in a dream as a small mouse that had to hide in a hole in order not to be stepped upon - and thereby gave an absolutely true picture of how she acted in life - had not the remotest idea that factually she was frightened of everyone, and told me she did not know what anxiety was. A basic distrust toward everyone may be covered up by a superficial conviction that people in general are quite likable, and it may coexist with perfunctorily good relations with others; an existing deep contempt for everyone may be camouflaged by a readiness to admire.

Although the basic anxiety concerns people it may be entirely divested of its personal character and transformed into a feeling of being endangered by thunderstorms, political events, germs, accidents, canned food, or to a feeling of being doomed by fate. It is not difficult for the trained observer to recognize the basis of these attitudes, but it always requires intense psychoanalytic work before the neurotic person himself recognizes that his anxiety does not really concern germs and the like, but people, and that his irritation against people is not, or is not only, an adequate and justified reaction to some actual provocation, but that he has become basically hostile toward others, distrustful of them.

Before describing the implications of the basic anxiety for neuroses we have to discuss one question which is probably in the minds of many readers. Is not the attitude of basic anxiety and hostility toward people, described as an essential constituent of neuroses, a "normal" attitude which secretly all of us have, though perhaps in a lesser degree? When considering this question one has to distinguish two points of view.

If "normal" is used in the sense of a general human attitude, one could say that the basic anxiety has indeed a normal corollary in what German philosophical and religious language has termed the Angst der Kreatur. What the phrase expresses is that factually all of us are helpless toward forces more powerful than ourselves, such as death, illness, old age, catastrophes of nature, political events, accidents. The first time we recognize this is in the helplessness of childhood, but the knowledge remains with us for our entire life. This anxiety of the Kreatur has in common with the basic anxiety the element of the helplessness toward greater powers, but it does not connote hostility on the part of those powers.

If "normal" is used, however, in the sense of normal for our culture, one could say this much: in general experience will lead a person in our culture, provided his life is not too sheltered, to become more reserved toward people as he reaches maturity, to be more cautious in trusting them, more familiar with the fact that often people's actions are not straightforward but are determined by cowardice and expediency. If he is an honest person he will include himself; if not he will see all of this more clearly in others. In short he develops an attitude which is definitely akin to the basic anxiety. There are these differences, however: the healthy mature person does not feel helpless toward these human failings and there is in him none of the indiscriminateness that is found in the basic neurotic attitude. He retains the capacity of bestowing a good deal of genuine friendliness and confidence on some people. Perhaps the differences are to be accounted for by the fact that the healthy person made the bulk of h

is unfortunate experiences at an age when he could integrate them, while the neurotic person made them at an age when he could not master them, and as a consequence of his helplessness reacted to them with anxiety.

The basic anxiety has definite implications for the person's attitude toward himself and others. It means emotional isolation, all the harder to bear as it concurs with a feeling of intrinsic weakness of the self. It means a weakening of the very foundation of self-confidence. It carries the germ for a potential conflict between the desire to rely on others, and the impossibility to do so because of deep distrust of and hostility toward them. It means that because of intrinsic weakness the person feels a desire to put all responsibility upon others, to be protected and taken care of, whereas because of the basic hostility there is much too much distrust to carry out this desire. And invariably the consequence is that he has to put the greatest part of his energies into securing reassurance.

The more unbearable the anxiety the more thorough the protective means have to be. There are in our culture four principal ways in which a person tries to protect himself against the basic anxiety: affection, submissiveness, power, withdrawal.

First, securing affection in any form may serve as a powerful protection against anxiety. The motto is: If you love me you will not hurt me.

Second, submissiveness can be roughly subdivided according to whether or not it concerns definite persons or institutions. There is such a definite focus, for example, in submission to standardized traditional views, to the rites of some religion or to the demands of some powerful person. To obey these rules or comply with these demands will be the determining motive for all behavior. This attitude may take the form of having to he "good," although the connotation of "good" varies with the demands or the rules that are complied with.

When the attitude of compliance is not attached to any institution or person it takes the more generalized form of compliance with the potential wishes of all persons and avoidance of everything that might arouse resentment. In such cases the individual represses all demands of his own, represses criticism of others, is willing to let himself be abused without defending himself and is ready to be indiscriminately helpful to others. Occasionally people are aware of the fact that anxiety underlies their actions, but usually they are not at all aware of this fact and firmly believe they act as they do because of an ideal of unselfishness or self-sacrifice which goes so far as a renunciation of their own wishes. In both the definite and the general forms of submissiveness the motto is: If I give in, I shall not be hurt.

The submissive attitude may also serve the purpose of securing reassurance by affection. If affection is so important to a person that his feeling of security in life depends on it, then he is willing to pay any price for it, and in the main this means complying with the wishes of others. Frequently, however, a person is unable to believe in any affection, and then his complying attitude is directed not toward winning affection but toward winning protection. There are persons who can feel secure only by rigid submission. In them the anxiety is so great and the disbelief in affection so complete that the possibility of affection does not enter at all.

A third attempt at protection against the basic anxiety is through power - trying to achieve security by gaining factual power or success, or possession, or admiration, or intellectual superiority. In this attempt at protection the motto is: If I have power, no one can hurt me.

The fourth means of protection is withdrawal. The preceding groups of protective devices have in common a willingness to contend with the world, to cope with it in one way or another. Protection can also be found, however, by withdrawing from the world. This does not mean going into a desert or into complete seclusion; it means achieving independence of others as they affect either one's external or one's internal needs. Independence in regard to external needs may be achieved, for example, by piling up possessions. This motivation for possession is entirely different from the motivation for the sake of power or influence, and the use made of the possessions is likewise different. Where possessions are amassed for the sake of independence there is usually too much anxiety to enjoy them, and they are guarded with an attitude of parsimony because the only objective is to be safeguarded against all eventualities. Another means that serves the same purpose of becoming externally independent of others is a restriction of one's needs to a minimum.

Independence in regard to internal needs may be found, for example, by an attempt to become emotionally detached from people so that nothing will hurt or disappoint one. It means choking off one's emotional needs. One expression of such detachment is the attitude of not taking anything seriously, including one's Helf, an attitude often found in intellectual circles. Not taking one's self seriously is not to be confounded with not thinking one's self important. In fact these attitudes may be mutually contradictory.

These devices of withdrawal have a similarity with the devices of submissiveness or compliance, inasmuch as both involve a renunciation of one's own wishes. But while in the latter group renunciation is in the service of being "good" or of complying with the desires of others in order to feel safe, in the former group the idea of being "good" plays no role at all, and the object of renunciation is attaining independence of others. Here the motto is: If I withdraw, nothing can hurt me.

In order to evaluate the role played in neuroses by these various attempts at protection against the basic anxiety it is necessary to realize their potential intensity. They are prompted not by a wish to satisfy a desire for pleasure or happiness, but by a need for reassurance. This does not mean, however, that they are in any way less powerful or less imperative than instinctual drives. Experience shows that the impact of a striving for ambition, for instance, may be equally as strong as or even stronger than a sexual impulse.

Any one of these four devices, pursued exclusively or predominantly, can be effective in bringing the reassurance wanted, if the life situation allows its pursuit without incurring conflicts - even though such a one-sided pursuit is usually paid for with an impoverishment of the personality as a whole. For example, a woman following the path of submissiveness may find peace and a great deal of secondary satisfaction in a culture which requires from a woman obedience to family or husband and compliance with the traditional forms. If it is a monarch who develops a restless striving for power and possession, the result again may be reassurance and a successful life. As a matter of fact, however, a straightforward pursuit of one goal will often fail to fulfill its purpose because the demands set up are so excessive or so inconsiderate that they involve conflicts with the surroundings. More frequently reassurance from a great underlying anxiety is sought not in one way only, but in several ways which, moreover, are incompatible with one another. Thus the neurotic person may at the same time be driven imperatively toward dominating everyone and wanting to be loved by everyone, toward complying with others and imposing his will on them, toward detachment from people and a craving for their affection. It is these utterly unsoluble conflicts which are most often the dynamic center of neuroses.

The two attempts which most frequently clash are the striving for affection and the striving for power. Therefore in the following chapters I shall discuss these in greater detail.

The structure of neuroses as I have described it is not, in principle, contradictory to Freud's theory that in the main neuroses are the result of a conflict between instinctual drives and social demands, or their representation in the "super ego". But while I agree that the conflict between individual strivings and social pressure is an indispensable condition for every neurosis, I do not believe it is a sufficient condition. The clash between individual desires and social requirements does not necessarily bring about neuroses, but may just as well lead to factual restrictions in life, that is, to the simple suppression or repression of desires or, in most general terms, to factual suffering. A neurosis is brought about only if this conflict generates anxiety and if the attempts to allay anxiety lead in turn to defensive tendencies, which, although equally imperative, are nevertheless incompatible with one another.

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