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Тексты для начинающих: читаем английские тексты с переводом для новичков. Отрабатываем чтение английских текстов с репетитором английского языка онлайн. Как научиться читать английскую транскрипцию?
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Тексты для начинающих: читаем английские тексты с переводом для новичков. Отрабатываем чтение английских текстов с репетитором английского языка онлайн. Как научиться читать английскую транскрипцию?

Сегодня на нашем уроке английского языка онлайн для начинающих мы будем заниматься вживую без записи, однако учебные материалы для занятий английским языком онлайн Вы можете скачать с этой страницы по ссылке ниже. Постарайтесь найти время послушать чтение английских текстов для начинающих носителем языке до урока, это поможет Вам научиться читать английскую транскрипцию и подготовиться к уроку. Если Вы не можете посетить сегодняшнее онлайн занятие английским языком, прослушайте этот тексты для начинающих изучать английский язык и объяснение .

Текст на английском для новичков с разбором и переводом на русский язык mp3(Для прослушивания MP3 объекта вам необходим Flash плейер)

Очень важно закреплять все то, что мы изучаем на уроках английского языка для начинающих. Сами по себе тексты для начинающих уже являются эффективным способом изучить английский язык, особенно если учесть, что я уделяю много внимания методики обучения и фонетической практики, объясняя как читать английские тексты с переводом. Однако просто читать английские тексты с репетитором английского языка онлайн, еще недостаточно, чтобы полноценно освоить все аспекты английского языка. Чтобы научиться читать английскую транскрипцию, достаточно просто посещать онлайн уроки, однако, чтобы запомнить лексику, закрепить грамматику и наработать языковой навык, нужно делать английские онлайн тесты в грамматических секциях моего сайта английский онлайн.

Занятия разговорным английским онлайн: обучение и практика

Основной курс, по которому я провожу занятия - это Курс разговорного английского языка онлайн обучение и практика проводятся для учащихся всех уровней: от новичков, начинающих изучение английского с полного нуля или после немецкого или французского языка и до Upper-Intermediate и Advanced.

Многие из вас зашли на мой сайт для изучающих английский язык онлайн в поисках учебных материалов и не знакомы с моей системой обучения английскому языку онлайн; кто-то ищет тексты для начинающих изучать английский язык, другие хотят узнать, как как читать английские тексты с переводом, а кому-то нужно научиться читать английскую транскрипцию или он хочет почитать английские тексты с репетитором английского языка онлайн.

Именно поэтому перед началом нашего урока я считаю нужным сказать несколько слов о моих уроках английского языка по Skype. Учебные материалы по английскому языку для начинающих, которые Вы видите на этой странице, предназначены для уроков английского языка онлайн, которые я провожу каждый день без выходных и праздников с утра до ночи для своих учеников через скайп.

Английский язык по скайпу онлайн

Английский язык по скайпу - это наиболее удобный вид занятий английским языком онлайн для тех учеников, кому требуется интенсивная разговорная практика на английском языке, но на регулярные занятия с репетитором постоянно не хватает времени.

Многие ученики спрашивают меня: Что делать, если на уроки английского языка не хватает времени и сил после тяжелого рабочего дня? Если посмотреть на распределение времени, то Вы увидите, что при обычных занятиях английским языком в Москве, Санкт-Петербурге, Казани или любом другом городе, основное время уходит не на собственно обучение английскому языку, а на поездки туда-сюда, а также не то, что после урока еще нужно возвращаться домой, поэтому уроки английского языка с репетитором или на курсах не могут идти допоздна.

Уроки английского языка по скайпу лишены этих недостатков, так как Вы тратите каждую минуту своего драгоценного времени на занятия с репетитором английского языка онлайн, а не на поездки. Вы также можете заниматься до глубокой ночи, а затем сразу лечь спать после урока. Если Вы изучаете английских язык на курсах, так эффективно организовать свое время не получится - нужно планировать время на возвращение домой, приведение себя в порядок перед сном и так далее. Час здесь, полтора часа там - глядишь, дополнительные 10 часов в неделю на занятия английским языком по Skype и удалось выкроить. А даже 10 часов уроков английского языка через скайп - это уже очень много!

Эффективность занятий по Скайп или в виртуальном онлайн классе (я предпочитаю проводить уроки английского онлайн именно онлайн класс, так как в нем удобнее организовать общение и показ материалов одновременно) ничем не уступает по результативности очным уроках английского языка в Москве. Составляющие эффективного обучения английскому языку по Skype ничем не отличаются от очных уроков в онлайн классе или занятий с репетитором: преподаватель английского высокой квалификации, индивидуально подобранная качественная методика обучения английскому языку онлайн и оптимальная организация учебного процесса.

Практика разговорного английского языка через Скайп

При этом, сделав выбор в пользу практики разговорного английского по скайпу или полный онлайн курс обучения английскому языку Skype, Вы экономите несколько часов времени каждый день, которые бы терялись впустую по дороге на курсы английского языка и обратно, а также деньги, которые можно с большей пользой потратить на поездки заграницу для разговорной практики с носителями. Также, делая выбор в пользу практики разговорного английского через Скайп, Вы получаете возможность заниматься с лучшим преподавателем английского языка онлайн, программа которого подходит именно Вам.

Я уверен, что приведенных мной аргументов в пользу изучения английского языка онлайн через Скайп более чем достаточно, чтобы убедить Вас в том, что практика разговорного английского по Skype - это прекрасная возможность освоить английскую лексику и грамматику, а также навыки разговорного общения на английском языке в кратчайшие сроки.

Как правило, вместо Skype я использую еще более удобную форму занятий - онлайн класс, который загружается прямо в браузере. Заходите в онлайн класс английского языка по ссылке ниже и послушайте, как проходят уроки английского языка онлайн на моем сайте.

Нажмите на ссылку и войдите в онлайн класс английского языка

Простые английские тексты для начинающих: как читать английские тексты с переводом?

Простые тексты на английском для начинающих изучать английский язык являются эффективным способом запоминания активной лексики английского языка онлайн, изучения грамматики в реальных предложения и постановки навыков чтения - при условии, что Вы будете читать английские тексты с переводом на онлайн уроках под моим строгим контролем.

Чтение текстов на английском языке представляет собой лучший способ изучения английского языка и самый эффективный метод научиться читать на английском. Тексты на английском языке для начинающих и продолжающих, если они правильно подобраны по уровню знаний, сразу дадут Вам понимание того, как нужно читать на английском языке и сильно помогут в изучении языка.

Чтение английских текстов для начинающих. Как изучать английский язык с репетитором английского языка онлайн?

Чтение английских текстов для начинающих - очень ответственная разновидность учебного процесса. Неправильное чтение текстов на английском языке, самостоятельное чтение английских текстов, особенно неправильно и неумело подобранных текстов на английском языке могут отбить желание продолжать изучение английского языка даже у самых стойких и упорных.

Именно поэтому я всегда говорю, как важно под руководством опытного репетитора английского языка онлайн не только правильно подобрать тексты для начинающих изучать английский язык, но и правильно с этими текстами на английском языке работать в ходе онлайн уроков английского языка по Skype.

Как читать по Skype английские тексты с переводом, чтобы научиться читать английскую транскрипцию?

Основной принцип работы с простыми текстами на английском языке yна уроках через Скайп заключается в том, чтобы, как бы удивительно это ни звучало, в их чтении. Читать английские тексты с переводом на уроках полезно не только начинающим или учащимся начального уровня, но и продолжающим, так как Вы учитесь читать английскую транскрипцию, запоминаете английскую лексику и произношение новых слов. В этом плане тексты для чтения на английском для начинающих являются эффективным методом изучения разговорного английского онлайн и отличным способом повысить уверенность в собственных силах.

Однако тексты для чтения на английском языке могут быть самыми разнообразными, как по целям обучения, например, ученик хочет просто научиться правильно читать по-английски, так и по способам, которыми цели обучения достигаются - ведь можно просто прочитать английский текст онлайн, а можно выполнять самые разные задания на лексику и грамматику по изучаемому материалу.

Читаем английские тексты с переводом онлайн. Где найти тексты для чтения онлайн на английском языке своего уровня?

Самыми распространенными целями, для которых мы изучаем и читаем английские тексты с переводом, являются: расширение общеупотребительной разговорной лексики английского языка или тематического словарного запаса (зависит от тематики текстов), обучение и тренировка в произношении английских слов и выражений - вполне возможно научиться читать английскую транскрипцию за одну-две недели занятий.

Другой целью чтения английских текстов онлайн на наших уроках может быть закрепление правил английской грамматики для начинающих и устойчивых разговорных выражений путем разбора в английских текстах для чтения типичных примеров, встречающихся в тексте, и их многократного повторения в различных реальных ситуациях с целью запоминания и т.д.

Очевидно, что для полноценного решения всех поставленных задач и достижения целей недостаточно всего лишь читать английские тексты с переводом - необходимо, чтобы опытный учитель английского онлайн подобрал соответствующие этим целям тексты на английском языке и изучал их с Вами на английских уроках по Скайпу.

Как просто научиться читать по-английски при помощи английских текстов для чтения онлайн?

Другим очень важным критерием, на который я опираюсь, подбирая тексты для чтения онлайн на английском языке, является уровень их лексической и грамматической сложности. Я прекрасно понимаю, насколько непросто начинающим научиться читать по-английски: я виду цель своей методической работы в том, чтобы тексты для чтения на английском языке, с одной стороны, не шокировали новичков своей сложностью, а, с другой, давали необходимую лексическую и грамматическую нагрузку, необходимую для правильного усвоения грамматического и лексического материала.

Я считаю, что для начинающих изучение английского языка онлайн необходимы более простые и короткие английские онлайн тексты, которые не будут на начальных этапах обучения не рассеивать внимание на излишне сложную лексику и грамматику, и не утомлять начинающих учеников английского раньше времени. Все-таки, в первую очередь, задача английских текстов для начинающих онлайн - это дать хороший старт в изучении нового языка и придать уверенности в собственных силах.

Для продолжающих учеников, ранее изучавших язык, которым необходимо научиться читать на английском хорошо и быстро, нужны более сложные тексты на английском языке с большим многообразием лексического материала и грамматических форм. Я в этих целях использую неадаптированные статьи из путеводителей, блогов и интернет-сайтов, а также английские тесты с заданиями и вопросами из материалов IELTS.

Репетитор английского онлайн подберет Вам тексты для начинающих изучать английский язык

Выбор текстов для начинающих изучать английский язык может осуществляться самостоятельно - опытным путем, либо с помощью преподавателя английского языка онлайн. Как я уже говорил Выше, гораздо лучше, если тексты для чтения на английском языке, подберем Вам репетитор английского онлайн. Опытный и квалифицированный репетитор английского языка с педагогическим образованием сможет точно определить ваш уровень знания английского языка и подобрать соответствующие тексты для чтения на английском.

Если вы изучаете английский язык самостоятельно, то задача существенно усложняется - к трудностям изучения нового языка добавляется необходимость самостоятельного определения методики обучения, что очень непросто, - то вам следует выбирать английские тексты с переводом, исходя из следующих соображений, - количество незнакомых слов в английском тексте не должно превышать 10-15% от общего объема английского текста.

Чтение текстов на английском языке с большим количеством новых слов будет отнимать много времени на постоянное обращение к словарю и существенно снизит эффективность запоминания новых английских слов и выражений. Отличным вариантом работы с новыми текстами на английском языке является чтение небольших фрагментов с переводом в конце текста наиболее сложных слов, фраз и целых предложений. Перевод слов и целых предложений и устойчивых речевых оборотов из текста существенно сэкономит время на обращение к словарю, а английская транскрипция поможет научиться правильно произносить слово.

The Gift

Donna Ashlock, a 14-year-old girl from California, was very sick. She had a bad heart. "Donna needs a new heart," her doctors said. "She must have a new heart, or she will die soon." Felipe Garza, 15, was worried about Donna. Felipe was Donna's friend. He liked Donna very much. He liked her freckles, and he liked her smile. Felipe didn't want Donna to die.

Felipe talked to his mother about Donna. "I'm going to die," Felipe told his mother, "and I'm going to give my heart to Donna." Felipe's mother didn't pay much attention to Felipe. "Felipe is just kidding," she thought. "Felipe is not going to die. He's strong and healthy."

But Felipe was not healthy. He had terrible headaches sometimes. "My head really hurts," he often told his friends. Felipe never told his parents about his headaches. One morning Felipe woke up with a sharp pain in his head. He was dizzy, and he couldn't breathe. The Garzas rushed Felipe to the hospital. Doctors at the hospital had terrible news for the Garzas. "Felipe's brain is dead," the doctors said. "We can't save him."

The Garzas were very sad. But they remembered Felipe's words. "Felipe wanted to give his heart to Donna," they told the doctors. The doctors did several tests. Then they told the Garzas, "We can give Felipe's heart to Donna."

The doctors took out Felipe's heart and rushed the heart to Donna. Other doctors took out Donna's heart and put Felipe's heart in her chest. In a short time the heart began to beat.

The operation was a success. Felipe's heart was beating in Donna's chest, but Donna didn't know it. Her parents and doctors didn't tell her. They waited until she was stronger; then they told her about Felipe. "I feel very sad," Donna said, "but I'm thankful to Felipe."

Three months after the operation Donna Ashlock went back to school. She has to have regular check-ups, and she has to take medicines every day. But she is living a normal life. Felipe's brother John says, "Every time we see Donna, we think of Felipe. She has Felipe's heart in her. That gives us great peace."

Первое задание по тексту для начинающих изучать английский язык - Vocabulary

Выполните задание по тексту на английском языке для начинающих, заполнив пропуски в предложениях следующими словами: check-up, sharp, rushed, kidding, dizzy:

1. When Felipe told his mother, "I'm going to die" she thought, "Felipe is not serious. He's only joking." She thought Felipe was just .... 2. Felipe had a sudden, terrible pain in his head. It was a ... pain. 3. Felipe thought, "The room is going around and around." He felt .... 4. When Felipe's parents took him to the hospital, they drove fast. They ... him to the hospital. 5. Donna goes to the doctor sometimes. The doctor listens to her heart and makes sure it is working well. Donna goes to the doctor for a ....

Второе задание, которое научит читать английские тексты с переводом, – Understanding the Main Idea

Понимаем содержание текста на английском с переводом. Обведите кружком наиболее правильный ответ - при необходимости Вы можете еще раз прочитать английский текст с переводом:

1. The title of the story is "The Gift". What was the gift?

a. two toys and the balloons.
b. Felipe's heart.
c. the operation.

2. Why did Donna feel sad and thankful?

a. She had an operation, but she went to school three months later.
b. She has to take medicine every day, but she is living a normal life.
c. Her friend Felipe died, but he gave Donna his heart.

Задание No 3, чтобы научиться читать английский текст онлайн, – Understanding Cause and Effect

Это задание научит Вас правильно читать английский текст онлайн: посмотрите на подчеркнутые местоимения в верхнем блоке. Что они значат? Подберите ответ в нижнем блоке - при необходимости Вы можете прочитать английский текст онлайн еще раз перед выполнением этого задания:

1. They said Donna needed a new heart.
2. He was Donna's friend.
3. Felipe told them his head hurt.
4. They told the doctors: "Felipe wanted to give his heart to Donna."
5. It was a success.
6. Donna has to take it every day.

a. Felipe Garza
b. Felipe's friends
c. medicine
d. the Garzas
e. doctors
f. Donna's operation.

Четвертое лексическое задание по английскому тексту для чтения онлайн, которое научит вас правильно читать на английском языке – Finding More Information

Как правильно читать на английском языке? Посмотрите на английские предложения в верхнем блоке. Еще раз повторите английский тест для чтение онлайн и скажите, какое предложение в нижнем блоке дает вам дополнительную информацию:

1. Donna Ashlock was very sick.
2. Felipe was not healthy.
3. Doctors at the hospital had terrible news for the Garzas.
4. The Garzas remembered Felipe's words.

a. He had terrible headaches sometimes.
b. "I'm going to give my heart to Donna."
c. "We cannot save Felipe", they said.
d. She had a bad heart.

Разговорное задание на английском языке, чтобы проверить понимание текстов для чтения на английском языке, – Discussion

Подготовьтесь к обсуждению по предложенной теме по материалам изученного текста на английском языке. Выполнение этого задания поможет лучше усвоить тексты для чтения на английском языке:

Many people carry donor cards in their wallets. A donor card says, "If I die in an accident, take my heart and other important organs. Give them to sick people." Do you want a donor card?

Шестое лексическое задание на чтение английских тексты с переводом – Writing

Чтобы научиться читать английские тексты с переводом, прочитайте и переведите рассказ. Напишите рассказ о подарке, о котором мечтаете. Используйте в качестве образцов тексты для чтения на английском языке из нашего онлайн курса английского языка для начинающих:

The title of the story is "The Gift." Would you like a gift? Imagine this: One day you come home from English class and walk into the kitchen. A big box is on the kitchen table. The box has your name on it. It's a gift for you! You open the box and look at your gift. It is something you have wanted for a long, long time. What is your gift? Write about it. Here is an example.

When I walked into the kitchen, I smelled something delicious. It smelled like food from my country. "That is impossible!" I thought. Then I saw the box and opened it. Inside the box was a dinner with my favourite foods. My mother sent the dinner from Panama! The dinner was rice, beans and ceviche. (Ceviche is a seafood with lemon, garlic and onions; is was very spicy). I ate the dinner. It was delicious. Thank you, Mum.

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Английский онлайн - английская медицинская лексика. Медицинская лексика для врачей, изучающих английский язык, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time

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Chapter 5: The Basic Structure of Neuroses

An anxiety may be fully accounted for by the actual conflict situation. If, however, we find an anxiety-creating situation in a character neurosis we always have to reckon with previously existing anxieties in order to explain why in that particular instance hostility arose and was repressed. We shall find then that this previous anxiety was in turn the result of a pre-existing hostility, and so on. In order to understand how the whole development started we have to go back to childhood.

This will be one of the few occasions on which I deal with the question of childhood experiences. The reason why I shall make less reference to childhood than is customary in psychoanalytical literature is not that I think the experiences of childhood are less significant than do other psychoanalytical writers, but that in this book I am dealing with the actual structure of the neurotic personality rather than with the individual experiences leading up to it. In examining the childhood histories of great numbers of neurotic persons I have found that the common denominator in all of them is an environment showing the following characteristics in various combinations.

The basic evil is invariably a lack of genuine warmth and affection. A child can stand a great deal of what is often regarded as traumatic - such as sudden weaning, occasional beating, sex experiences - as long as inwardly he feels wanted and loved. Needless to say, a child feels keenly whether love is genuine, and cannot be fooled by any faked demonstrations. The main reason why a child does not receive enough warmth and affection lies in the parents' incapacity to give it on account of their own neuroses. More frequently than not, in my experience, the essential lack of warmth is camouflaged, and the parents claim to have in mind the child's best interest. Educational theories, oversolicitude or the self-sacrificing attitude of an "ideal" mother are the basic factors contributing to an atmosphere that more than anything else lays the cornerstone for future feelings of immense insecurity.

Furthermore, we find various actions or attitudes on the part of the parents that cannot but arouse hostility, such as preference for other children, unjust reproaches, unpredictable changes between overindulgence and scornful rejection, unfulfilled promises, and not least important, an attitude toward the child's needs, which goes through all gradations from temporary inconsideration to a consistent interfering with the most legitimate wishes of the child, such as disturbing friendships, ridiculing independent thinking, spoiling its interest in its own pursuits, whether artistic, athletic or mechanical - altogether an attitude of the parents, which if not in intention nevertheless in effect means breaking the child's will.

In psychoanalytic literature concerning the factors that arouse a child's hostility the main emphasis is placed on frustration of the child's wishes, particularly those in the sexual sphere, and on jealousy. It is possible that infantile hostility arises in part because of the forbidding cultural attitude toward pleasure in general and infantile sexuality in particular, whether the latter concerns sexual curiosity, masturbation or sexual games with other children. But frustration is certainly not the only source of a rebellious hostility. Observation shows beyond any doubt that children, as well as adults, can accept a great many deprivations if they feel the deprivations to be just, fair, necessary or purposeful. A child does not mind education for cleanliness, for example, if the parents do not put an undue stress on it and do not coerce the child with subtle or gross cruelty. Nor does a child mind an occasional punishment, provided it feels certain in general of being loved and provided it feels the punishment to be fair and not done with the intention of hurting it or humiliating it. The question of whether frustration as such incites to hostility is difficult to judge, because in surroundings, which impose many deprivations on a child plenty of other provocative factors are usually present. What matters is the spirit in which frustrations are imposed rather than the frustrations themselves.

The reason I stress this point is that the emphasis often placed on the danger of frustration as such has led many parents to carry the idea still farther than did Freud himself and to shrink from any interference with the child lest he might be harmed by it.

Jealousy can certainly be a source of formidable hatred in children as well as in adults. There is no doubt about the role that jealousy between siblings and jealousy of one or the other parent may play in neurotic children, or about the lasting influence this attitude may have for later life. The question does arise, however, as to the conditions which generate this jealousy. Are jealous reactions as they are observed in sibling rivalry and in the Oedipus complex bound to arise in every child, or are they provoked by definite conditions.

Freud's observations concerning the Oedipus complex were made on neurotic persons. In them he found that high-pitched jealousy reactions concerning one of the parents were sufficiently destructive in kind to arouse fear and likely to exert lasting disturbing influences on character formation and personal relations. Observing this phenomenon frequently in neurotic per sons of our time, he assumed it to be universal. Not only did he assume the Oedipus complex to be the very kernel of neuroses, but also he tried to understand complex phenomena in other cultures on this basis. It is this generalization that is doubtful. Some jealousy reactions do arise easily in our culture in the relations between siblings as well as in those between parents and children, as they occur in every group living closely together. But there is no evidence that destructive and lasting jealousy reactions - and it is these we think of when talking of the Oedipus complex or of sibling rivalry - are in our culture, not to speak of other cultures, so common as Freud assumes. They are in general human reactions but are artificially generated through the atmosphere in which a child grows up.

Which factors in detail are responsible for generating jealousy we shall understand later when discussing the general implications of neurotic jealousy. Suffice it to mention here the lack of warmth and the spirit of competitiveness, which contribute to this result. Besides, neurotic parents who create the kind of atmosphere we have discussed are usually discontented with their lives, have no satisfactory emotional or sexual relations and hence are inclined to make children the objects of their love. They loose their need for affection on the children. Their expression of affection has not always a sexual coloring, but at any rate it is highly charged emotionally. I doubt very much that the sexual undercurrents in the child's relations to the parents would ever be strong enough to effect a potential disturbance. At any rate, I know of no case in which it was not neurotic parents who by terror and tenderness forced the child into these passionate attachments, with all the implications of possessiveness and jealousy described by Freud.

We are accustomed to believe that a hostile opposition to the family or to some member of it is unfortunate for the development of a child. It is unfortunate, of course, if the child has to fight against the actions of neurotic parents. If there are good reasons for opposition, however, the danger for the child's character formation lies not so much in feeling or expressing a protest, but in repressing it. There are several dangers arising from the repression of criticism, protest or accusations, and one is that the child is likely to take all the blame on itself and feel unworthy of love; the implications of this situation we shall discuss later. The danger that concerns us here is that repressed hostility may create anxiety and start the development we have discussed.

There are several reasons, effective in various degrees and combinations, why a child who grows up in such an atmosphere will repress hostility: helplessness, fear, love or feelings of guilt.

The helplessness of a child is often considered merely as a biological fact. Though the child is for long years factually dependent on its environment for the fulfilment of its needs - having less physical strength and less experience than the grown-ups - there is nevertheless too much emphasis on the biological aspect of the question. After the first two or three years of life there is a decided change from the prevailingly biological dependence to a kind of dependence that includes the mental, intellectual and spiritual life of the child. This continues until the child matures into early adulthood and is able to take life into its own hands. There are great individual differences, though, in the degree to which children remain dependent on their parents. It all depends on what the parents try to achieve in the education of their offspring: whether the tendency is to make a child strong, courageous, independent, capable of dealing with all sorts of situations, or whether the main tendency is to shelter the child, to make it obedient, to keep it ignorant of life as it is, or in short to infantilize it up to twenty years of age or longer. In children growing up under adverse conditions helplessness is usually artificially reinforced by intimidation, by babying or by bringing and keeping the child in a stage of emotional dependence. The more helpless a child is made the less will it dare to feel or show opposition, and the longer will such opposition be delayed. In this situation the underlying feeling - or what we may call the motto - is: I have to repress my hostility because I need you.

Fear may be aroused directly by threats, prohibitions and punishments, and by outbreaks of temper or violent scenes witnessed by a child; it may be aroused also by indirect intimidation, such as impressing the child with the great dangers of life - germs, street cars, strangers, uneducated children, climbing trees. The more apprehensive a child is made the less will it dare to show or even to feel hostility. Here the motto is: I have to repress my hostility because I am afraid of you.

Love may be another reason for repressing hostility. When genuine affection is absent there is often a great verbal emphasis on how much the parents love the child and how they would sacrifice for him up to the last drop of their blood. A child, particularly if otherwise intimidated, may cling to this substitute for love and fear to be rebellious lest it lose the reward for being docile. In such situations the motto is: I have to repress hostility for fear of losing love.

Thus far we have discussed situations in which a child represses his hostility against the parents because he is afraid that any expression of it would spoil his relations to the parents. He is motivated by plain fear that these powerful giants would desert him, withdraw their reassuring benevolence or turn against him. In addition, in our culture a child is usually made to feel guilty for any feelings or expressions of hostility or opposition; that is, he is made to feel unworthy or contemptible in his own eyes if he either expresses or feels resentment against the parents or if he breaks rules set up by them. These two reasons for feelings of guilt are closely interrelated. The more a child is made to feel guilty about trespassing on forbidden territory the less will he dare to feel spiteful or accusatory toward the parents.

In our culture the sexual sphere is the one in which guilt feelings are most frequently stimulated. Whether prohibitions are expressed by audible silence or by open threats and punishment, a child frequently comes to feel not only that sexual curiosity and activities are forbidden but that he is dirty and despicable if he indulges in them. If there are any sexual fantasies and wishes concerning one of the parents, these, too, though they remain unexpressed as a result of the forbidding attitude toward sexuality in general, are likely to make a child feel guilty. In this situation the motto is: I have to repress hostility because I would be a bad child if I felt hostile.

In various combinations any of the factors mentioned may bring a child to repress his hostility and eventually produce anxiety.

But does every infantile anxiety necessarily lead ultimately to a neurosis? Our knowledge is not advanced enough to answer this question adequately. My belief is that infantile anxiety is a necessary factor but not a sufficient cause for the development of a neurosis. It seems that favorable circumstances, such as an early change of surroundings or counteracting influences of any sort, may forestall a definite neurotic development. If, however, as frequently happens, living conditions are not of a kind to diminish the anxiety, then not only may this anxiety persist, but - as we shall see later - it is bound gradually to increase and to set in motion all the processes which constitute a neurosis.

Among the factors that may influence the further development of infantile anxiety there is one that I want to consider especially. It makes a great difference whether the reaction of hostility and anxiety is restricted to the surroundings which forced the child into it, or whether it develops into an attitude of hostility and anxiety toward people in general.

If a child is fortunate enough to have, for example, a loving grandmother, an understanding teacher, some good friends, his experience with them may prevent him from expecting nothing but bad from everybody. But the more difficult are his experiences in the family, the more will a child be inclined to develop not only a reaction of hatred toward the parents and other children but a distrustful or spiteful attitude toward everyone. The more a child is isolated and deterred from making other experiences of his own, the more such a development will be fostered. And finally, the more a child covers up his grudge against his own family, as for instance by conforming with his parents' attitudes, the more he projects his anxiety to the outside world and thus becomes convinced that the "world" in general is dangerous and frightening.

The general anxiety concerning the "world" may also develop or increase gradually. A child who has grown up in the kind of atmosphere described will not dare in his own contacts with others to be as enterprising or pugnacious as they. He will have lost the blissful certainty of being wanted and will take even a harmless teasing as a cruel rejection. He will be wounded and hurt more easily than others and will be less capable of defending himself.

The condition that is fostered or brought about by the factors I have mentioned, or by similar factors, is an insidiously increasing, all-pervading feeling of being lonely and helpless in a hostile world. The acute individual reactions to individual provocations crystallize into a character attitude. This attitude as such does not constitute a neurosis but it is the nutritive soil out of which a definite neurosis may develop at any time. Because of the fundamental role this attitude plays in neuroses I have given it a special designation: the basic anxiety; it is inseparably interwoven with a basic hostility.

In psychoanalysis, working through all the different individual forms of anxiety, one gradually recognizes the fact that the basic anxiety underlies all relationships to people. While the individual anxieties may be stimulated by actual cause, the basic anxiety continues to exist even though there is no particular stimulus in the actual situation. If the whole neurotic picture were compared to a state of political unrest in a nation, the basic anxiety and basic hostility would be similar to the underlying dissatisfactions with and protests against the regime. Surface manifestations may be entirely missing in either case, or they may appear in diversified forms. In the state they may appear as riots, strikes, assemblies, demonstrations; in the psychological sphere, too, the forms of anxiety may manifest themselves in symptoms of all sorts. Regardless of the particular provocation, all manifestations of the anxiety emanate from one common background.

In simple situation neuroses the basic anxiety is lacking. They are constituted by neurotic reactions to actual conflict situations on the part of individuals whose personal relations are undisturbed. The following may serve as an example of these cases as they frequently occur in a psychotherapeutic practice.

A woman of forty-five complained about heart - pounding and anxiety states at night, with profuse perspiration. There were no organic findings, and all the evidence suggested that she was a healthy person. The impression she gave was of a warmhearted and straightforward woman. Twenty years before, for reasons which lay not so much in herself as in the situation, she had married a man twenty-five years older than she. She had been very happy with him, had been satisfied sexually, had three children who had developed exceptionally well. She had been diligent and capable in housekeeping. In the past five or six years her husband had become somewhat cranky and sexually less potent, but she had endured this without any neurotic reaction. The trouble had started seven months before, when a likable, marriageable man of her own age had begun to pay her personal attention. What had happened was that she had developed a resentment against her aging husband but had entirely repressed this feeling for reasons that were very strong in view of her whole mental and social background and the basically good marriage relationship. With a little help in a few interviews she was able to face the conflict situation squarely and thereby rid herself of her anxiety.

Nothing can better indicate the importance of basic anxiety than a comparison of individual reactions in cases of character neurosis with those in cases, like the one just cited, which belong to the group of simple situation neuroses. The latter are found in healthy persons who for understandable reasons are incapable of solving a conflict situation consciously, that is, they are unable to face the existence and the nature of the conflict and hence are incapable of making a clear decision. One of the outstanding differences between the two types of neuroses is the great facility of therapeutic results in the situation neurosis. In character neuroses therapeutic treatment has to proceed under great difficulties and consequently extends over a long period of time, sometimes too long a period for the patient to wait to be cured; but the situation neurosis is comparatively easily solved. An understanding discussion of the situation is often not only a symptomatic but also a causal therapy. In other cases the causal therapy is the removal of the difficulty by changing the environment.

Thus while in situation neuroses we have the impression of an adequate relation between conflict situation and neurotic reaction, this relation seems to be missing in character neuroses. Because of the existing basic anxiety, the slightest provocation may elicit the most intense reaction, as we shall see later in more detail.

Although the range of manifest forms of anxiety, or the protection against it, is infinite and varies with each individual, the basic anxiety is more or less the same everywhere, varying only in extent and intensity. It may be roughly described as a feeling of being small, insignificant, helpless, deserted, endangered, in a world that is out to abuse, cheat, attack, humiliate, betray, envy. One patient of mine expressed this feeling in a picture she drew spontaneously, in which she was sitting ill the midst of a scene as a tiny, helpless, naked baby, surrounded by all sorts of menacing monsters, human and animal, ready to attack her.

In psychoses one will often find a rather high degree of awareness of the existence of such an anxiety. In paranoid patients this anxiety is restricted to one or several definite persons; in schizophrenic patients there is often a keen awareness of the potential hostility of the world around them, so much so that they are inclined to take even a kindness shown to them as implying potential hostility.

In neuroses, however, there is rarely an awareness of the existence of the basic anxiety, or of the basic hostility, at least not of the weight and significance it has for the entire life. A patient of mine who saw herself in a dream as a small mouse that had to hide in a hole in order not to be stepped upon - and thereby gave an absolutely true picture of how she acted in life - had not the remotest idea that factually she was frightened of everyone, and told me she did not know what anxiety was. A basic distrust toward everyone may be covered up by a superficial conviction that people in general are quite likable, and it may coexist with perfunctorily good relations with others; an existing deep contempt for everyone may be camouflaged by a readiness to admire.

Although the basic anxiety concerns people it may be entirely divested of its personal character and transformed into a feeling of being endangered by thunderstorms, political events, germs, accidents, canned food, or to a feeling of being doomed by fate. It is not difficult for the trained observer to recognize the basis of these attitudes, but it always requires intense psychoanalytic work before the neurotic person himself recognizes that his anxiety does not really concern germs and the like, but people, and that his irritation against people is not, or is not only, an adequate and justified reaction to some actual provocation, but that he has become basically hostile toward others, distrustful of them.

Before describing the implications of the basic anxiety for neuroses we have to discuss one question which is probably in the minds of many readers. Is not the attitude of basic anxiety and hostility toward people, described as an essential constituent of neuroses, a "normal" attitude which secretly all of us have, though perhaps in a lesser degree? When considering this question one has to distinguish two points of view.

If "normal" is used in the sense of a general human attitude, one could say that the basic anxiety has indeed a normal corollary in what German philosophical and religious language has termed the Angst der Kreatur. What the phrase expresses is that factually all of us are helpless toward forces more powerful than ourselves, such as death, illness, old age, catastrophes of nature, political events, accidents. The first time we recognize this is in the helplessness of childhood, but the knowledge remains with us for our entire life. This anxiety of the Kreatur has in common with the basic anxiety the element of the helplessness toward greater powers, but it does not connote hostility on the part of those powers.

If "normal" is used, however, in the sense of normal for our culture, one could say this much: in general experience will lead a person in our culture, provided his life is not too sheltered, to become more reserved toward people as he reaches maturity, to be more cautious in trusting them, more familiar with the fact that often people's actions are not straightforward but are determined by cowardice and expediency. If he is an honest person he will include himself; if not he will see all of this more clearly in others. In short he develops an attitude which is definitely akin to the basic anxiety. There are these differences, however: the healthy mature person does not feel helpless toward these human failings and there is in him none of the indiscriminateness that is found in the basic neurotic attitude. He retains the capacity of bestowing a good deal of genuine friendliness and confidence on some people. Perhaps the differences are to be accounted for by the fact that the healthy person made the bulk of h

is unfortunate experiences at an age when he could integrate them, while the neurotic person made them at an age when he could not master them, and as a consequence of his helplessness reacted to them with anxiety.

The basic anxiety has definite implications for the person's attitude toward himself and others. It means emotional isolation, all the harder to bear as it concurs with a feeling of intrinsic weakness of the self. It means a weakening of the very foundation of self-confidence. It carries the germ for a potential conflict between the desire to rely on others, and the impossibility to do so because of deep distrust of and hostility toward them. It means that because of intrinsic weakness the person feels a desire to put all responsibility upon others, to be protected and taken care of, whereas because of the basic hostility there is much too much distrust to carry out this desire. And invariably the consequence is that he has to put the greatest part of his energies into securing reassurance.

The more unbearable the anxiety the more thorough the protective means have to be. There are in our culture four principal ways in which a person tries to protect himself against the basic anxiety: affection, submissiveness, power, withdrawal.

First, securing affection in any form may serve as a powerful protection against anxiety. The motto is: If you love me you will not hurt me.

Second, submissiveness can be roughly subdivided according to whether or not it concerns definite persons or institutions. There is such a definite focus, for example, in submission to standardized traditional views, to the rites of some religion or to the demands of some powerful person. To obey these rules or comply with these demands will be the determining motive for all behavior. This attitude may take the form of having to he "good," although the connotation of "good" varies with the demands or the rules that are complied with.

When the attitude of compliance is not attached to any institution or person it takes the more generalized form of compliance with the potential wishes of all persons and avoidance of everything that might arouse resentment. In such cases the individual represses all demands of his own, represses criticism of others, is willing to let himself be abused without defending himself and is ready to be indiscriminately helpful to others. Occasionally people are aware of the fact that anxiety underlies their actions, but usually they are not at all aware of this fact and firmly believe they act as they do because of an ideal of unselfishness or self-sacrifice which goes so far as a renunciation of their own wishes. In both the definite and the general forms of submissiveness the motto is: If I give in, I shall not be hurt.

The submissive attitude may also serve the purpose of securing reassurance by affection. If affection is so important to a person that his feeling of security in life depends on it, then he is willing to pay any price for it, and in the main this means complying with the wishes of others. Frequently, however, a person is unable to believe in any affection, and then his complying attitude is directed not toward winning affection but toward winning protection. There are persons who can feel secure only by rigid submission. In them the anxiety is so great and the disbelief in affection so complete that the possibility of affection does not enter at all.

A third attempt at protection against the basic anxiety is through power - trying to achieve security by gaining factual power or success, or possession, or admiration, or intellectual superiority. In this attempt at protection the motto is: If I have power, no one can hurt me.

The fourth means of protection is withdrawal. The preceding groups of protective devices have in common a willingness to contend with the world, to cope with it in one way or another. Protection can also be found, however, by withdrawing from the world. This does not mean going into a desert or into complete seclusion; it means achieving independence of others as they affect either one's external or one's internal needs. Independence in regard to external needs may be achieved, for example, by piling up possessions. This motivation for possession is entirely different from the motivation for the sake of power or influence, and the use made of the possessions is likewise different. Where possessions are amassed for the sake of independence there is usually too much anxiety to enjoy them, and they are guarded with an attitude of parsimony because the only objective is to be safeguarded against all eventualities. Another means that serves the same purpose of becoming externally independent of others is a restriction of one's needs to a minimum.

Independence in regard to internal needs may be found, for example, by an attempt to become emotionally detached from people so that nothing will hurt or disappoint one. It means choking off one's emotional needs. One expression of such detachment is the attitude of not taking anything seriously, including one's Helf, an attitude often found in intellectual circles. Not taking one's self seriously is not to be confounded with not thinking one's self important. In fact these attitudes may be mutually contradictory.

These devices of withdrawal have a similarity with the devices of submissiveness or compliance, inasmuch as both involve a renunciation of one's own wishes. But while in the latter group renunciation is in the service of being "good" or of complying with the desires of others in order to feel safe, in the former group the idea of being "good" plays no role at all, and the object of renunciation is attaining independence of others. Here the motto is: If I withdraw, nothing can hurt me.

In order to evaluate the role played in neuroses by these various attempts at protection against the basic anxiety it is necessary to realize their potential intensity. They are prompted not by a wish to satisfy a desire for pleasure or happiness, but by a need for reassurance. This does not mean, however, that they are in any way less powerful or less imperative than instinctual drives. Experience shows that the impact of a striving for ambition, for instance, may be equally as strong as or even stronger than a sexual impulse.

Any one of these four devices, pursued exclusively or predominantly, can be effective in bringing the reassurance wanted, if the life situation allows its pursuit without incurring conflicts - even though such a one-sided pursuit is usually paid for with an impoverishment of the personality as a whole. For example, a woman following the path of submissiveness may find peace and a great deal of secondary satisfaction in a culture which requires from a woman obedience to family or husband and compliance with the traditional forms. If it is a monarch who develops a restless striving for power and possession, the result again may be reassurance and a successful life. As a matter of fact, however, a straightforward pursuit of one goal will often fail to fulfill its purpose because the demands set up are so excessive or so inconsiderate that they involve conflicts with the surroundings. More frequently reassurance from a great underlying anxiety is sought not in one way only, but in several ways which, moreover, are incompatible with one another. Thus the neurotic person may at the same time be driven imperatively toward dominating everyone and wanting to be loved by everyone, toward complying with others and imposing his will on them, toward detachment from people and a craving for their affection. It is these utterly unsoluble conflicts which are most often the dynamic center of neuroses.

The two attempts which most frequently clash are the striving for affection and the striving for power. Therefore in the following chapters I shall discuss these in greater detail.

The structure of neuroses as I have described it is not, in principle, contradictory to Freud's theory that in the main neuroses are the result of a conflict between instinctual drives and social demands, or their representation in the "super ego". But while I agree that the conflict between individual strivings and social pressure is an indispensable condition for every neurosis, I do not believe it is a sufficient condition. The clash between individual desires and social requirements does not necessarily bring about neuroses, but may just as well lead to factual restrictions in life, that is, to the simple suppression or repression of desires or, in most general terms, to factual suffering. A neurosis is brought about only if this conflict generates anxiety and if the attempts to allay anxiety lead in turn to defensive tendencies, which, although equally imperative, are nevertheless incompatible with one another.

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