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Chapter 5: The Basic Structure of Neuroses

An anxiety may be fully accounted for by the actual conflict situation. If, however, we find an anxiety-creating situation in a character neurosis we always have to reckon with previously existing anxieties in order to explain why in that particular instance hostility arose and was repressed. We shall find then that this previous anxiety was in turn the result of a pre-existing hostility, and so on. In order to understand how the whole development started we have to go back to childhood.

This will be one of the few occasions on which I deal with the question of childhood experiences. The reason why I shall make less reference to childhood than is customary in psychoanalytical literature is not that I think the experiences of childhood are less significant than do other psychoanalytical writers, but that in this book I am dealing with the actual structure of the neurotic personality rather than with the individual experiences leading up to it. In examining the childhood histories of great numbers of neurotic persons I have found that the common denominator in all of them is an environment showing the following characteristics in various combinations.

The basic evil is invariably a lack of genuine warmth and affection. A child can stand a great deal of what is often regarded as traumatic - such as sudden weaning, occasional beating, sex experiences - as long as inwardly he feels wanted and loved. Needless to say, a child feels keenly whether love is genuine, and cannot be fooled by any faked demonstrations. The main reason why a child does not receive enough warmth and affection lies in the parents' incapacity to give it on account of their own neuroses. More frequently than not, in my experience, the essential lack of warmth is camouflaged, and the parents claim to have in mind the child's best interest. Educational theories, oversolicitude or the self-sacrificing attitude of an "ideal" mother are the basic factors contributing to an atmosphere that more than anything else lays the cornerstone for future feelings of immense insecurity.

Furthermore, we find various actions or attitudes on the part of the parents that cannot but arouse hostility, such as preference for other children, unjust reproaches, unpredictable changes between overindulgence and scornful rejection, unfulfilled promises, and not least important, an attitude toward the child's needs, which goes through all gradations from temporary inconsideration to a consistent interfering with the most legitimate wishes of the child, such as disturbing friendships, ridiculing independent thinking, spoiling its interest in its own pursuits, whether artistic, athletic or mechanical - altogether an attitude of the parents, which if not in intention nevertheless in effect means breaking the child's will.

In psychoanalytic literature concerning the factors that arouse a child's hostility the main emphasis is placed on frustration of the child's wishes, particularly those in the sexual sphere, and on jealousy. It is possible that infantile hostility arises in part because of the forbidding cultural attitude toward pleasure in general and infantile sexuality in particular, whether the latter concerns sexual curiosity, masturbation or sexual games with other children. But frustration is certainly not the only source of a rebellious hostility. Observation shows beyond any doubt that children, as well as adults, can accept a great many deprivations if they feel the deprivations to be just, fair, necessary or purposeful. A child does not mind education for cleanliness, for example, if the parents do not put an undue stress on it and do not coerce the child with subtle or gross cruelty. Nor does a child mind an occasional punishment, provided it feels certain in general of being loved and provided it feels the punishment to be fair and not done with the intention of hurting it or humiliating it. The question of whether frustration as such incites to hostility is difficult to judge, because in surroundings, which impose many deprivations on a child plenty of other provocative factors are usually present. What matters is the spirit in which frustrations are imposed rather than the frustrations themselves.

The reason I stress this point is that the emphasis often placed on the danger of frustration as such has led many parents to carry the idea still farther than did Freud himself and to shrink from any interference with the child lest he might be harmed by it.

Jealousy can certainly be a source of formidable hatred in children as well as in adults. There is no doubt about the role that jealousy between siblings and jealousy of one or the other parent may play in neurotic children, or about the lasting influence this attitude may have for later life. The question does arise, however, as to the conditions which generate this jealousy. Are jealous reactions as they are observed in sibling rivalry and in the Oedipus complex bound to arise in every child, or are they provoked by definite conditions.

Freud's observations concerning the Oedipus complex were made on neurotic persons. In them he found that high-pitched jealousy reactions concerning one of the parents were sufficiently destructive in kind to arouse fear and likely to exert lasting disturbing influences on character formation and personal relations. Observing this phenomenon frequently in neurotic per sons of our time, he assumed it to be universal. Not only did he assume the Oedipus complex to be the very kernel of neuroses, but also he tried to understand complex phenomena in other cultures on this basis. It is this generalization that is doubtful. Some jealousy reactions do arise easily in our culture in the relations between siblings as well as in those between parents and children, as they occur in every group living closely together. But there is no evidence that destructive and lasting jealousy reactions - and it is these we think of when talking of the Oedipus complex or of sibling rivalry - are in our culture, not to speak of other cultures, so common as Freud assumes. They are in general human reactions but are artificially generated through the atmosphere in which a child grows up.

Which factors in detail are responsible for generating jealousy we shall understand later when discussing the general implications of neurotic jealousy. Suffice it to mention here the lack of warmth and the spirit of competitiveness, which contribute to this result. Besides, neurotic parents who create the kind of atmosphere we have discussed are usually discontented with their lives, have no satisfactory emotional or sexual relations and hence are inclined to make children the objects of their love. They loose their need for affection on the children. Their expression of affection has not always a sexual coloring, but at any rate it is highly charged emotionally. I doubt very much that the sexual undercurrents in the child's relations to the parents would ever be strong enough to effect a potential disturbance. At any rate, I know of no case in which it was not neurotic parents who by terror and tenderness forced the child into these passionate attachments, with all the implications of possessiveness and jealousy described by Freud.

We are accustomed to believe that a hostile opposition to the family or to some member of it is unfortunate for the development of a child. It is unfortunate, of course, if the child has to fight against the actions of neurotic parents. If there are good reasons for opposition, however, the danger for the child's character formation lies not so much in feeling or expressing a protest, but in repressing it. There are several dangers arising from the repression of criticism, protest or accusations, and one is that the child is likely to take all the blame on itself and feel unworthy of love; the implications of this situation we shall discuss later. The danger that concerns us here is that repressed hostility may create anxiety and start the development we have discussed.

There are several reasons, effective in various degrees and combinations, why a child who grows up in such an atmosphere will repress hostility: helplessness, fear, love or feelings of guilt.

The helplessness of a child is often considered merely as a biological fact. Though the child is for long years factually dependent on its environment for the fulfilment of its needs - having less physical strength and less experience than the grown-ups - there is nevertheless too much emphasis on the biological aspect of the question. After the first two or three years of life there is a decided change from the prevailingly biological dependence to a kind of dependence that includes the mental, intellectual and spiritual life of the child. This continues until the child matures into early adulthood and is able to take life into its own hands. There are great individual differences, though, in the degree to which children remain dependent on their parents. It all depends on what the parents try to achieve in the education of their offspring: whether the tendency is to make a child strong, courageous, independent, capable of dealing with all sorts of situations, or whether the main tendency is to shelter the child, to make it obedient, to keep it ignorant of life as it is, or in short to infantilize it up to twenty years of age or longer. In children growing up under adverse conditions helplessness is usually artificially reinforced by intimidation, by babying or by bringing and keeping the child in a stage of emotional dependence. The more helpless a child is made the less will it dare to feel or show opposition, and the longer will such opposition be delayed. In this situation the underlying feeling - or what we may call the motto - is: I have to repress my hostility because I need you.

Fear may be aroused directly by threats, prohibitions and punishments, and by outbreaks of temper or violent scenes witnessed by a child; it may be aroused also by indirect intimidation, such as impressing the child with the great dangers of life - germs, street cars, strangers, uneducated children, climbing trees. The more apprehensive a child is made the less will it dare to show or even to feel hostility. Here the motto is: I have to repress my hostility because I am afraid of you.

Love may be another reason for repressing hostility. When genuine affection is absent there is often a great verbal emphasis on how much the parents love the child and how they would sacrifice for him up to the last drop of their blood. A child, particularly if otherwise intimidated, may cling to this substitute for love and fear to be rebellious lest it lose the reward for being docile. In such situations the motto is: I have to repress hostility for fear of losing love.

Thus far we have discussed situations in which a child represses his hostility against the parents because he is afraid that any expression of it would spoil his relations to the parents. He is motivated by plain fear that these powerful giants would desert him, withdraw their reassuring benevolence or turn against him. In addition, in our culture a child is usually made to feel guilty for any feelings or expressions of hostility or opposition; that is, he is made to feel unworthy or contemptible in his own eyes if he either expresses or feels resentment against the parents or if he breaks rules set up by them. These two reasons for feelings of guilt are closely interrelated. The more a child is made to feel guilty about trespassing on forbidden territory the less will he dare to feel spiteful or accusatory toward the parents.

In our culture the sexual sphere is the one in which guilt feelings are most frequently stimulated. Whether prohibitions are expressed by audible silence or by open threats and punishment, a child frequently comes to feel not only that sexual curiosity and activities are forbidden but that he is dirty and despicable if he indulges in them. If there are any sexual fantasies and wishes concerning one of the parents, these, too, though they remain unexpressed as a result of the forbidding attitude toward sexuality in general, are likely to make a child feel guilty. In this situation the motto is: I have to repress hostility because I would be a bad child if I felt hostile.

In various combinations any of the factors mentioned may bring a child to repress his hostility and eventually produce anxiety.

But does every infantile anxiety necessarily lead ultimately to a neurosis? Our knowledge is not advanced enough to answer this question adequately. My belief is that infantile anxiety is a necessary factor but not a sufficient cause for the development of a neurosis. It seems that favorable circumstances, such as an early change of surroundings or counteracting influences of any sort, may forestall a definite neurotic development. If, however, as frequently happens, living conditions are not of a kind to diminish the anxiety, then not only may this anxiety persist, but - as we shall see later - it is bound gradually to increase and to set in motion all the processes which constitute a neurosis.

Among the factors that may influence the further development of infantile anxiety there is one that I want to consider especially. It makes a great difference whether the reaction of hostility and anxiety is restricted to the surroundings which forced the child into it, or whether it develops into an attitude of hostility and anxiety toward people in general.

If a child is fortunate enough to have, for example, a loving grandmother, an understanding teacher, some good friends, his experience with them may prevent him from expecting nothing but bad from everybody. But the more difficult are his experiences in the family, the more will a child be inclined to develop not only a reaction of hatred toward the parents and other children but a distrustful or spiteful attitude toward everyone. The more a child is isolated and deterred from making other experiences of his own, the more such a development will be fostered. And finally, the more a child covers up his grudge against his own family, as for instance by conforming with his parents' attitudes, the more he projects his anxiety to the outside world and thus becomes convinced that the "world" in general is dangerous and frightening.

The general anxiety concerning the "world" may also develop or increase gradually. A child who has grown up in the kind of atmosphere described will not dare in his own contacts with others to be as enterprising or pugnacious as they. He will have lost the blissful certainty of being wanted and will take even a harmless teasing as a cruel rejection. He will be wounded and hurt more easily than others and will be less capable of defending himself.

The condition that is fostered or brought about by the factors I have mentioned, or by similar factors, is an insidiously increasing, all-pervading feeling of being lonely and helpless in a hostile world. The acute individual reactions to individual provocations crystallize into a character attitude. This attitude as such does not constitute a neurosis but it is the nutritive soil out of which a definite neurosis may develop at any time. Because of the fundamental role this attitude plays in neuroses I have given it a special designation: the basic anxiety; it is inseparably interwoven with a basic hostility.

In psychoanalysis, working through all the different individual forms of anxiety, one gradually recognizes the fact that the basic anxiety underlies all relationships to people. While the individual anxieties may be stimulated by actual cause, the basic anxiety continues to exist even though there is no particular stimulus in the actual situation. If the whole neurotic picture were compared to a state of political unrest in a nation, the basic anxiety and basic hostility would be similar to the underlying dissatisfactions with and protests against the regime. Surface manifestations may be entirely missing in either case, or they may appear in diversified forms. In the state they may appear as riots, strikes, assemblies, demonstrations; in the psychological sphere, too, the forms of anxiety may manifest themselves in symptoms of all sorts. Regardless of the particular provocation, all manifestations of the anxiety emanate from one common background.

In simple situation neuroses the basic anxiety is lacking. They are constituted by neurotic reactions to actual conflict situations on the part of individuals whose personal relations are undisturbed. The following may serve as an example of these cases as they frequently occur in a psychotherapeutic practice.

A woman of forty-five complained about heart - pounding and anxiety states at night, with profuse perspiration. There were no organic findings, and all the evidence suggested that she was a healthy person. The impression she gave was of a warmhearted and straightforward woman. Twenty years before, for reasons which lay not so much in herself as in the situation, she had married a man twenty-five years older than she. She had been very happy with him, had been satisfied sexually, had three children who had developed exceptionally well. She had been diligent and capable in housekeeping. In the past five or six years her husband had become somewhat cranky and sexually less potent, but she had endured this without any neurotic reaction. The trouble had started seven months before, when a likable, marriageable man of her own age had begun to pay her personal attention. What had happened was that she had developed a resentment against her aging husband but had entirely repressed this feeling for reasons that were very strong in view of her whole mental and social background and the basically good marriage relationship. With a little help in a few interviews she was able to face the conflict situation squarely and thereby rid herself of her anxiety.

Nothing can better indicate the importance of basic anxiety than a comparison of individual reactions in cases of character neurosis with those in cases, like the one just cited, which belong to the group of simple situation neuroses. The latter are found in healthy persons who for understandable reasons are incapable of solving a conflict situation consciously, that is, they are unable to face the existence and the nature of the conflict and hence are incapable of making a clear decision. One of the outstanding differences between the two types of neuroses is the great facility of therapeutic results in the situation neurosis. In character neuroses therapeutic treatment has to proceed under great difficulties and consequently extends over a long period of time, sometimes too long a period for the patient to wait to be cured; but the situation neurosis is comparatively easily solved. An understanding discussion of the situation is often not only a symptomatic but also a causal therapy. In other cases the causal therapy is the removal of the difficulty by changing the environment.

Thus while in situation neuroses we have the impression of an adequate relation between conflict situation and neurotic reaction, this relation seems to be missing in character neuroses. Because of the existing basic anxiety, the slightest provocation may elicit the most intense reaction, as we shall see later in more detail.

Although the range of manifest forms of anxiety, or the protection against it, is infinite and varies with each individual, the basic anxiety is more or less the same everywhere, varying only in extent and intensity. It may be roughly described as a feeling of being small, insignificant, helpless, deserted, endangered, in a world that is out to abuse, cheat, attack, humiliate, betray, envy. One patient of mine expressed this feeling in a picture she drew spontaneously, in which she was sitting ill the midst of a scene as a tiny, helpless, naked baby, surrounded by all sorts of menacing monsters, human and animal, ready to attack her.

In psychoses one will often find a rather high degree of awareness of the existence of such an anxiety. In paranoid patients this anxiety is restricted to one or several definite persons; in schizophrenic patients there is often a keen awareness of the potential hostility of the world around them, so much so that they are inclined to take even a kindness shown to them as implying potential hostility.

In neuroses, however, there is rarely an awareness of the existence of the basic anxiety, or of the basic hostility, at least not of the weight and significance it has for the entire life. A patient of mine who saw herself in a dream as a small mouse that had to hide in a hole in order not to be stepped upon - and thereby gave an absolutely true picture of how she acted in life - had not the remotest idea that factually she was frightened of everyone, and told me she did not know what anxiety was. A basic distrust toward everyone may be covered up by a superficial conviction that people in general are quite likable, and it may coexist with perfunctorily good relations with others; an existing deep contempt for everyone may be camouflaged by a readiness to admire.

Although the basic anxiety concerns people it may be entirely divested of its personal character and transformed into a feeling of being endangered by thunderstorms, political events, germs, accidents, canned food, or to a feeling of being doomed by fate. It is not difficult for the trained observer to recognize the basis of these attitudes, but it always requires intense psychoanalytic work before the neurotic person himself recognizes that his anxiety does not really concern germs and the like, but people, and that his irritation against people is not, or is not only, an adequate and justified reaction to some actual provocation, but that he has become basically hostile toward others, distrustful of them.

Before describing the implications of the basic anxiety for neuroses we have to discuss one question which is probably in the minds of many readers. Is not the attitude of basic anxiety and hostility toward people, described as an essential constituent of neuroses, a "normal" attitude which secretly all of us have, though perhaps in a lesser degree? When considering this question one has to distinguish two points of view.

If "normal" is used in the sense of a general human attitude, one could say that the basic anxiety has indeed a normal corollary in what German philosophical and religious language has termed the Angst der Kreatur. What the phrase expresses is that factually all of us are helpless toward forces more powerful than ourselves, such as death, illness, old age, catastrophes of nature, political events, accidents. The first time we recognize this is in the helplessness of childhood, but the knowledge remains with us for our entire life. This anxiety of the Kreatur has in common with the basic anxiety the element of the helplessness toward greater powers, but it does not connote hostility on the part of those powers.

If "normal" is used, however, in the sense of normal for our culture, one could say this much: in general experience will lead a person in our culture, provided his life is not too sheltered, to become more reserved toward people as he reaches maturity, to be more cautious in trusting them, more familiar with the fact that often people's actions are not straightforward but are determined by cowardice and expediency. If he is an honest person he will include himself; if not he will see all of this more clearly in others. In short he develops an attitude which is definitely akin to the basic anxiety. There are these differences, however: the healthy mature person does not feel helpless toward these human failings and there is in him none of the indiscriminateness that is found in the basic neurotic attitude. He retains the capacity of bestowing a good deal of genuine friendliness and confidence on some people. Perhaps the differences are to be accounted for by the fact that the healthy person made the bulk of h

is unfortunate experiences at an age when he could integrate them, while the neurotic person made them at an age when he could not master them, and as a consequence of his helplessness reacted to them with anxiety.

The basic anxiety has definite implications for the person's attitude toward himself and others. It means emotional isolation, all the harder to bear as it concurs with a feeling of intrinsic weakness of the self. It means a weakening of the very foundation of self-confidence. It carries the germ for a potential conflict between the desire to rely on others, and the impossibility to do so because of deep distrust of and hostility toward them. It means that because of intrinsic weakness the person feels a desire to put all responsibility upon others, to be protected and taken care of, whereas because of the basic hostility there is much too much distrust to carry out this desire. And invariably the consequence is that he has to put the greatest part of his energies into securing reassurance.

The more unbearable the anxiety the more thorough the protective means have to be. There are in our culture four principal ways in which a person tries to protect himself against the basic anxiety: affection, submissiveness, power, withdrawal.

First, securing affection in any form may serve as a powerful protection against anxiety. The motto is: If you love me you will not hurt me.

Second, submissiveness can be roughly subdivided according to whether or not it concerns definite persons or institutions. There is such a definite focus, for example, in submission to standardized traditional views, to the rites of some religion or to the demands of some powerful person. To obey these rules or comply with these demands will be the determining motive for all behavior. This attitude may take the form of having to he "good," although the connotation of "good" varies with the demands or the rules that are complied with.

When the attitude of compliance is not attached to any institution or person it takes the more generalized form of compliance with the potential wishes of all persons and avoidance of everything that might arouse resentment. In such cases the individual represses all demands of his own, represses criticism of others, is willing to let himself be abused without defending himself and is ready to be indiscriminately helpful to others. Occasionally people are aware of the fact that anxiety underlies their actions, but usually they are not at all aware of this fact and firmly believe they act as they do because of an ideal of unselfishness or self-sacrifice which goes so far as a renunciation of their own wishes. In both the definite and the general forms of submissiveness the motto is: If I give in, I shall not be hurt.

The submissive attitude may also serve the purpose of securing reassurance by affection. If affection is so important to a person that his feeling of security in life depends on it, then he is willing to pay any price for it, and in the main this means complying with the wishes of others. Frequently, however, a person is unable to believe in any affection, and then his complying attitude is directed not toward winning affection but toward winning protection. There are persons who can feel secure only by rigid submission. In them the anxiety is so great and the disbelief in affection so complete that the possibility of affection does not enter at all.

A third attempt at protection against the basic anxiety is through power - trying to achieve security by gaining factual power or success, or possession, or admiration, or intellectual superiority. In this attempt at protection the motto is: If I have power, no one can hurt me.

The fourth means of protection is withdrawal. The preceding groups of protective devices have in common a willingness to contend with the world, to cope with it in one way or another. Protection can also be found, however, by withdrawing from the world. This does not mean going into a desert or into complete seclusion; it means achieving independence of others as they affect either one's external or one's internal needs. Independence in regard to external needs may be achieved, for example, by piling up possessions. This motivation for possession is entirely different from the motivation for the sake of power or influence, and the use made of the possessions is likewise different. Where possessions are amassed for the sake of independence there is usually too much anxiety to enjoy them, and they are guarded with an attitude of parsimony because the only objective is to be safeguarded against all eventualities. Another means that serves the same purpose of becoming externally independent of others is a restriction of one's needs to a minimum.

Independence in regard to internal needs may be found, for example, by an attempt to become emotionally detached from people so that nothing will hurt or disappoint one. It means choking off one's emotional needs. One expression of such detachment is the attitude of not taking anything seriously, including one's Helf, an attitude often found in intellectual circles. Not taking one's self seriously is not to be confounded with not thinking one's self important. In fact these attitudes may be mutually contradictory.

These devices of withdrawal have a similarity with the devices of submissiveness or compliance, inasmuch as both involve a renunciation of one's own wishes. But while in the latter group renunciation is in the service of being "good" or of complying with the desires of others in order to feel safe, in the former group the idea of being "good" plays no role at all, and the object of renunciation is attaining independence of others. Here the motto is: If I withdraw, nothing can hurt me.

In order to evaluate the role played in neuroses by these various attempts at protection against the basic anxiety it is necessary to realize their potential intensity. They are prompted not by a wish to satisfy a desire for pleasure or happiness, but by a need for reassurance. This does not mean, however, that they are in any way less powerful or less imperative than instinctual drives. Experience shows that the impact of a striving for ambition, for instance, may be equally as strong as or even stronger than a sexual impulse.

Any one of these four devices, pursued exclusively or predominantly, can be effective in bringing the reassurance wanted, if the life situation allows its pursuit without incurring conflicts - even though such a one-sided pursuit is usually paid for with an impoverishment of the personality as a whole. For example, a woman following the path of submissiveness may find peace and a great deal of secondary satisfaction in a culture which requires from a woman obedience to family or husband and compliance with the traditional forms. If it is a monarch who develops a restless striving for power and possession, the result again may be reassurance and a successful life. As a matter of fact, however, a straightforward pursuit of one goal will often fail to fulfill its purpose because the demands set up are so excessive or so inconsiderate that they involve conflicts with the surroundings. More frequently reassurance from a great underlying anxiety is sought not in one way only, but in several ways which, moreover, are incompatible with one another. Thus the neurotic person may at the same time be driven imperatively toward dominating everyone and wanting to be loved by everyone, toward complying with others and imposing his will on them, toward detachment from people and a craving for their affection. It is these utterly unsoluble conflicts which are most often the dynamic center of neuroses.

The two attempts which most frequently clash are the striving for affection and the striving for power. Therefore in the following chapters I shall discuss these in greater detail.

The structure of neuroses as I have described it is not, in principle, contradictory to Freud's theory that in the main neuroses are the result of a conflict between instinctual drives and social demands, or their representation in the "super ego". But while I agree that the conflict between individual strivings and social pressure is an indispensable condition for every neurosis, I do not believe it is a sufficient condition. The clash between individual desires and social requirements does not necessarily bring about neuroses, but may just as well lead to factual restrictions in life, that is, to the simple suppression or repression of desires or, in most general terms, to factual suffering. A neurosis is brought about only if this conflict generates anxiety and if the attempts to allay anxiety lead in turn to defensive tendencies, which, although equally imperative, are nevertheless incompatible with one another.

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Пара десятков советов по подготовке к ielts онлайн, которые я дам ниже, позволят вам найти правильный подход к выполнению заданий на Reading в образцах тестов IELTS:

Эффективная онлайн подготовка к ielts, бесплатные образцы тестов IELTS онлайн

  1. Вы можете существенно облегчить себе понимание текста еще на этапе онлайн подготовки к ielts, если перед самым началом чтения уловите хотя бы примерную суть текста. При наличии в образцах тестов ielts иллюстраций, графиков, таблиц к тексту, начните с их изучения - в ходе наших занятий по подготовке к ielts онлайн Вы многократно убедитесь, что зачастую уже это дает четкое представление о теме текста.

  2. При выполнении образца теста IELTS сразу же начинайте писать на тестовом бланке для ответов, а не в вопроснике. Следует помнить, что, в отличие от занятий по подготовке к ielts онлайн, на реальном экзамене дополнительного времени на перенос ответов Вам никто не даст.

  3. Примеры тестов IELTS показывают, что модуль Reading даже в Academic Module достаточно обобщен. Моя программа подготовки к ielts онлайн, как и сам тест, рассчитана на людей, которые имеют широкопрофильное образование. В ходе подготовки к ielts онлайн если у вас есть высшее или хотя бы среднее специальное образование, значит образцы тестов IELTS не представляют для Вас смысловой преграды, то есть по-русских Вы бы их поняли, кроме того, Вы уже умеете работать с новой информацией. При подготовки к ielts онлайн для понимания текста IELTS по любой теме Вам не потребуются специализированные знания. Тем не менее, работая по образцам тестов IELTS онлайн, мои ученики говорят, что статьи модуля Reading существенно варьируются по уровню сложности, но я бы так не сказал; практика подготовки к ielts онлайн показывает, что в реальности причина состоит в том, что темы некоторых текстов совпадают с темами их работы, поэтому многие факты им уже известны, или же они могут о них догадаться в ходе подготовки по образцам тестов IELTS онлайн, которые можно скачать бесплатно на моем сайте. Однако помните, что при подготовке к ielts онлайн Вам нужно привыкать ориентироваться на содержание текста, а не на собственные знания в этой области.

  4. Подготовка к сдаче экзамена ielts, эффективная и быстрая программа подготовки к ielts

  5. Подготовка к сдаче экзамена ielts предполагает освоение еще одного полезного навыка: если вы читаете тексты IELTS и отвечаете на вопросы в хаотическом порядке (моя программа подготовки к IELTS включает эту очень эффективную методику, позволяющую сразу же дать ответы на те вопросы, ответы на которые совершенно очевидны), будьте внимательны, что ответы на вопросы образцов теста IELTS находятся на своем месте в таблице ответов в IELTS Answer Sheet.

  6. В случае если у вас нет совершенной уверенности в правильности вашего ответа на вопрос IELTS, в ходе подготовки к ielts онлайн, Вам нужно непременно перечитать текст по-новой и найти правильный вариант - подготовка к сдаче экзамена ielts тем и отличается от реального теста, что мы с вами не ограничены по времени разбора лексики и грамматики. Однако если в ходе подготовки к сдаче экзамена ielts Вы привыкните заострять свое внимание на каждом из вопросов, который вызывает у Вас сомнения, то можно и не успеть уложиться в отведенные вам жесточайшие временные рамки. На занятиях по подготовке к сдаче экзамена ielts я приучают учеников к жесткому тайм-менеджменту: нужно помнить, что на все про все в ходе модуля Reading вам отводится не более часа, за которые нужно прочитать три текста и ответить на 40 вопросов.

    Эффективная и быстрая программа подготовки к IELTS приучит Вас помнить о времени: ведь если вы на каждый вопрос в тесте ielts Вы потратите в пределах одной минуты (включая чтение самого текста, вопроса и поиск места в тексте, содержащего ответ), то у вас останутся дополнительные 20 минут для повторного изучения текстов и поисков ответов на сложные вопросы, которые Вы пропустили на этапе подготовки к сдаче экзамена ielts. Даже самая эффективная и быстрая программа подготовки к ielts не дает гарантии того, что Вы сможете ответить на все вопросы без исключения: если у вас никак не получается найти ответ на какой-то вопрос, переходите к следующему вопросу.

  7. IELTS как подготовиться быстро на семь баллов? Какая грамматика ielts проверяется на экзамене?

  8. Многие из учеников большим опытом изучения английского языка часто не знают как подготовиться к ielts с учетом специфики этого экзамена. Так, например, хотя ни один в тесте IELTS нигде не проверяется английская грамматика, ее знание является ключом к успешному выполнению заданий. Многие интересуются какая грамматика ielts проверяется на экзамене - проверяется все, в особенности сложные конструкции вроде Complex Object, Complex Subject, Complex Adverbial, Passive Voice и так далее.

    Когда я рассказывал Вам про IELTS как подготовиться быстро на семь баллов, объяснял тактики модуля Listening, точно также выполняя и тесты модуля IELTS Reading, Вы с высокой степенью вероятности сможете предугадать ответы раздела IELTS Reading. Именно таким образом и проверяется грамматика ielts на экзамене: используйте грамматическую конструкцию вопроса и самого текста для проверки своего ответа.

    Приведу пример того, как можно подготовиться к IELTS быстро на 7 или 8 баллов. Вам необходимо вписать пропущенное слов, которое стоит после числительного и перед инфинитивом: очевидно, что правильным ответом может быть только исчисляемое нарицательное существительное во множественном числе. Посмотрите на следующий пример: Over fifteen different ... were used to increase the success rate of weather forecating. a) improvements b) balloons c) digital d) NanoTech. Очевидно, что прилагательное digital и имя собственное NanoTech (капитан Очевидность подсказывает, что это имя собственное - название какой-то конторы) никак не могут быть правильными ответами. Теперь смотрим в текст и выбираем из двух вариантов: improvements или balloons.

  9. Подготовка к ielts по скайпу или подготовка к ielts самостоятельно?

  10. Подготовка к ielts по Скайпу научит Вас еще одному важному навыку: как и в случае с модулем IELTS Listening, отучайтесь придумывать ответы или выстраивать сложные логические цепочки. Подготовка к ielts по Скайпу позволит Вам научиться быстро выбирать ответ на вопросы типа True / False/ Not Given. Ответы на все вопросы IELTS Reading находятся в тексте, не нужно никакой отсебятины и придумок - при подготовке к ielts по Скайпу репетитор (то есть я) научит Вас сканировать текст на предмет ключевых фраз-ответов.

  11. Многие ученики, кто пробовал подготовку к ielts самостоятельно, говорят, что вопросы типа True / False/ Not Given - самые сложные типы вопросов на экзамене IELTS - причем это их мнение это в равной степени распространялось как на модуль IELTS Reading, так и на IELTS Listening. Подготовка к ielts самостоятельно в этом плане позволяет набить руку в быстром и правильном выбирании верного ответа: этот тип вопросов часто наводит тех, кто готовиться к ielts самостоятельно, на ложный ответ или заставляют придумывать свой собственный.

  12. Подготовка к ielts по скайпу с репетитором онлайн позволит Вам уяснить одну хитрость: в тесте IELTS раздел Reading вопросы задаются с использованием английских слов, которых часто нет в самом ответе - с аналогичной ловушкой мы уже встречались, когда готовились к ielts listening по Skype. Подготовка к ielts по скайпу предполагает заучивание синонимов ключевых слов текста так же, как и сами ключевые слова.

    На занятиях в ходе подготовки к ielts по Skype я учу Вас принимать в расчет не только синонимы, но и антонимы, та как часто на в ходе подготовки к ielts по скайп мы встречаемся со следующим явлением: в тексте использована отрицательная форма глагола: Newer compulters do not have floppy drives., в то время как в задании точно та же мысль будет сформулирована как More modern devices lack flexible discs.

  13. Подготовка к ielts по скайпу научит Вас работать с антонимами – словами с противоположным значением, которые являются любимейшей ловушкой авторов IELTS на модулях Listening и Reading. Подготовка к ielts по скайпу включает следующий тип заданий: фраза It wouldn't be wrong будет при определенных обстоятельствах означать правильно. Поэтому в ходе подготовки к ielts по Skype набирайте словарный запас уже здесь и сейчас на наших онлайн уроках английского языка!

  14. Курсы подготовки к экзамену ielts. Какие ielts материалы лучше для подготовки?

  15. Курсы подготовки к экзамену ielts - это не только знания и опыт преподавателя, но и возможность развить самодисциплину и умение контролировать время. На моих курсах подготовки к экзамену ielts я вижу, что часто ученики не умеют обращаться со временем, которое им выделено на экзамене, а ведь если вы неправильно рассчитали время и, занимаясь по материалам ielts, очевидно не успеваете закончить ответы на все 40 вопросов IELTS Reading, то Вам неизбежно придется угадывать некоторые ответы.

    Преподавая на собственных курсах подготовки к экзамену ielts, я никогда не переставал удивлялся количеству студентов, которые, прорабатывая IELTS материалы для подготовки, оставляют без ответа многоальтернативные вопросы (multiple choice answers) из-за того, что не знают ответ или сомневаются в правильности ответа. Очевидно, что если Вы занимаетесь по официальным материалам IELTS и работаете по образцам тестов IELTS, то Вас есть четыре варианта возможных ответов - A, B, C или D, - это дает уже 25% вероятность того, что вы правильно ответите, даже поставив букву наобум. Курсы подготовки к экзамену ielts тем и хороши, что Вы следуете моим советам , учитесь исключать один-два явно негодных варианта, тем самым поднимая свои шансы до 33% или 50%!

  16. На моих курсах подготовки к экзамену ielts я научу Вас выкручиваться из ситуаций, когда Вы не смогли найти правильный ответ: если Вы не знаете ответ на вопрос типа True / False/ Not Given и хотите поставить наугад, то НЕ выбирайте вариант Not Given – это самый редкий ответ.

  17. Использование лексики в различных заданиях теста IELTS. Как учить английские слова к IELTS?

  18. Одним из краеугольных камней IELTS Reading является лексика, встречающаяся в различных заданиях IELTS. Если контекст английского текста, который вам достался на IELTS Reading, имеет сильно специфический характер (например, разработка чипов для смартфонов или производство монокристаллических солнечных батарей), то не думайте, что вы ничего не смыслите в предмете разговора, но не сможете показать хороший результат из-за незнания лексики IELTS. Как раз наоборот, опыт моих учеников показывает, что чем специализированее тема по лексике ielts, тем больше фактов и прямой информации содержит сам текст. На моих курсах по подготовке к IELTS Вы научитесь обращаться сложную английскую лексику ielts обращаться в своем преимущество - много конкретных фактов позволят вам найти правильные ответы на все вопросы ielts.

  19. Очень важно учить английские слова к IELTS и изучать ielts грамматику, так как почти все тексты IELTS модуля Reading содержат скрытые точки зрения. Использование лексики в заданиях ielts рассчитано на то, чтобы запутать Вас - и поэтому нужно быть быть очень внимательным к фразам и целым абзацам, начинающимся с фраз типа While it can be argued that... НЕ высказывают мнения автора текста и зачастую являются выражением мыслей третьей стороны. Т.е. если ответ на вопрос содержится только в предложениях с такими вводными фразами, его нельзя использовать для ответа - правильным ответом будет Not Given.

  20. Знание лексики в заданиях IELTS поможет и в том случае, если Вам попадется экзаменационный текст IELTS с длинными и сложными словами. Если не учить английские слова к IELTS, то возникает желание пропустить эти слова и понять общий смысл экзаменационного IELTS текста без них. Тем не менее учить английские слова к IELTS очень важно, так как именно эти слова передают ключевое значение текста и таким образом являются словами-индикаторами ответов. Учить английские слова к IELTS нужно и потому, что эти хитрые слова могут и не являются никакими индикаторами ответов, и могут не нести никакого смыслового значения. Эти прилагательные или наречия скорее дополняют описание, нежели передают смысл. Если Вы не учили английские слова к IELTS, то начнете зацикливаться на неизвестных словах, и, следовательно, потеряете время. Заучивайте все новые английские слова к IELTS и не игнорируйте слишком сложные слова - учите все! На реальном экзамене поступайте с точностью до наоборот.

    Одновременно с заучиванием английских слов к IELTS попробуйте следующее в качестве тренировки: возьмите англоязычную газету и отыщите статью с множеством неизвестных слов. Вычеркните все эти английские слова к IELTS, а затем прочитайте статью и посмотрите, понимаете ли вы ее. Большая вероятность, что даже не выучив английские слова к IELTS, статью Вы поймете.

  21. Подготовка к тесту IELTS. Материалы, примеры, книги по IELTS

  22. Подготовка к тесту ielts также поможет Вам освоить еще один трюк: если ваш текст IELTS содержит множество статистических данных, дат, каких-либо иных характеристик (масса, длина и т.д.), то я научу Вас отмечать их по мере прочтения в материалах и книгах по IELTS, поскольку эти цифры несут важную информацию и, с высокой вероятностью, потребуются Вам при ответе на вопросы - это касается как материалов, примеров, книг по IELTS, так и реальных экзаменационных заданий. Если вы выделите цифры в книгах по IELTS сразу же при первом прочтении, то впоследствии сможете легко их отыскать, сэкономив драгоценное время. Материалы, примеры, книги по IELTS бесплатно на моем сайте - это отличный способ научиться работать с реальными экзаменационными заданиями.

  23. Материалы, примеры, книги по IELTS научат Вас поступать аналогично и с именами собственными - даже если в тексте и немного собственных существительных, не ленитесь их выделять, - это существенно облегчит вам дальнейший поиск. Примеры и книги по IELTS, содержащие большое количество заданий, можно бесплатно скачать и чиркать прямо в распечатках для собственного удобства.

  24. Материалы и книги по IELTS научат Вас не бояться писать на бланке с вопросами - это нормально, правда, помните, что Question Sheet нужно обязательно сдать в конце экзамена IELTS. Выносить какие-либо материалы с экзамена категорически запрещено - это грозит аннулированием результатов всего теста IELTS.

  25. Самый важный совет по подготовке к IELTS - регулярная и интенсивная онлайн подготовка к тесту IELTS!

  26. Самый важный совет по подготовке к IELTS Reading - посещайте как можно больше английских онлайн уроков, на которым мы готовимся к IELTS, а также как можно больше онлайн уроков английского языка по развитию навыков чтения, особенно когда мы читаем научно-популярные книжки. Активно участвуйте в онлайн уроках, изучайте структуру английских предложений, знаки препинания в английском языке, а, главное, старайтесь понять идею написанного. Посмотрите на часть английского текста еще до урока и напишите несколько предположений про последующий контекст. Потом проверьте истинность ваших догадок.

  27. Интенсивная онлайн подготовка к тесту IELTS позволит Вам привыкнуть к тому, что если время действительно поджимает, то оставьте на самый конец все вопросы типа True / False/ Not Given, а также многоальтернативные вопросы (multiple choice questions), поскольку для ответа на них вам не нужно что-либо по-новой перечитывать экзаменационные тексты IELTS Reading.

Can We Believe Our Own Eyes?

Задание No 1 – Questions 13-25

You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 13-25:

  1. An optical illusion refers to a visually perceived image that is deceptive or misleading in that information transmitted from the eye to the brain is processed in a way that the related assumption or deduction does not represent the true physical reality. Our perceptions of what we think we see can be influenced by a number of external factors; 'illusions' can be classified into two main categories these being 'physiological illusions' and 'cognitive' illusions, the latter category can then be divided again into four sub-types.

  2. Physiological illusions occur as a result of excessive stimulation of the eyes and brain which leads to a temporary state of confusion and mixed messages. For example, after exposure to extremely vivid lights, the eyes may need time to adapt and immediately after the stimulus, we may see things that would not be the norm. In the same way a contingent perceptual after-effect may be experienced after staring at a particular colour and the receptors in the brain may process subsequent colours inaccurately until overload has passed.

  3. Cognitive illusions, on the other hand, are said to arise not as a result of neurone activity as with the aforementioned category, but due to assumptions we may consciously make based on our knowledge and experience of the world. The four categories of cognitive illusion are 'ambiguous' illusions, 'distorting' illusions 'paradox' illusions and 'fictional' illusions. Inclusion of 'fictional' illusions into the cognitive group is somewhat misleading; however, as this type of illusion is unique in that it is only seen by an individual in a given situation and exists in no tangible form. A fictional illusion is in reality a hallucination which arises as a result of drug use or a brain condition such as schizophrenia.

  4. Ambiguous illusions are pictures or objects which are structured in such a way that alternative perceptions of their structure are possible. Different individuals may instantly perceive the object or picture in a different way than another and, in fact, the same individual is often able to see and interpret the image or object in more than one form. A classic example of an ambiguous illusion is the Necker cube. This cube is a standard line drawing which our visual senses generally interpret as a three dimensional box. When the lines of the box cross, the picture intentionally does not define which is in front and which is behind. However, when individuals view the box, it is the automatic response of the mind to interpret what is seen. Generally our thought process patterns work in the way that we view objects from above; for this reason, when most people look at the Necker Cube they will interpret the lower left face as being the front of the box, the base of the front face being parallel to the floor as their thought processes convert the image to three dimensions. However, it is also possible to interpret the image differently in that the front of the box could also be seen to be in a different position.

  5. The Necker Cube made contributions to researchers' understanding of the human visual system, providing evidence that the brain is a neural network with two distinct and interchangeable states. It has also been used in epistemology – the study of knowledge – as evidence to disprove the theory upheld by 'direct realism' that the way the human mind perceives the world is the way the world actually is. To illustrate, with the Necker cube we are generally able to see one or both versions of a three dimensional cube, when in fact only a two dimensional drawing comprised of 12 lines exists.

  6. Distorting illusions affect an individual's ability to judge size, length, or curvature; the Muller-Lyer illusion which consists of three lines with arrowlike endings is a prime example. In this illusion the middle arrow has both arrow ends pointing out, while the line above it has arrow ends pointing in and the third and final line possesses one inward pointing and one outward pointing arrow end. Most respondents from certain backgrounds generally respond that the middle arrow is the longest (though all are in fact the same). However, cultural backgrounds affect perceptions related to this illusion; international research having shown that non-Western subjects, particularly those generally not exposed to rectangular shaped buildings and door frames in their day to day life, are less likely to misinterpret the true length of the three drawings.

  7. Paradox illusions encourage the mind to believe that we are seeing something we know to be impossible. The Penrose Stairs and the Penrose Triangle, developed by Lionel Penrose are examples of models created to illustrate this phenomenon. Many naturally occurring optical illusions also exist. Throughout the world there is a number of locations where objects can be perceived to roll uphill; our cognitive and pre-learned knowledge inform us that this is impossible; however information received by the visual senses of observers creates conflict. These areas are often known as 'gravity' hills or 'magnetic' hills and are often popular with tourists; the mystical properties of the area often promoted vigorously to add mystique or claimed to arise as a result of the special properties and magnetic influence of the area's land.

  8. The scientific explanation for such phenomenon is that such areas are set on slightly sloping ground without a visible horizon against which to establish perspective. In addition, surrounding points of reference we would generally expect to be perpendicular, such as trees, are in fact on a slope. The interpretation of what observers believe they are experiencing is therefore confused, downward slopes may be perceived to be horizontal or tilting upwards and cars with hand brakes released on such ground appear to roll upwards when in fact they are rolling, as gravity dictates, in a downhill direction. While our innate sense of balance under normal situations helps us determine the inclination of the ground, interference from the visual stimuli as outlined above and lack of reference from points on the horizon can override this ability in such situations, especially if the gradient is gentle.

Задание No 2 – Questions 13-15

Answer the questions below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 13-15 on your answer sheet.

  1. What type of illusion is a result of interference with neurone activity? ...
  2. Which two factors influence the way we process information on a cognitive level? ...
  3. Which theory holds that individuals see only the true reality of a situation? ...

Задание No 3 – Questions 16-20

According to the information in Reading Passage 2, classify the following as relating to:

  1. Fictional illusions
  2. Paradox illusions
  3. Distorting illusions
  4. Ambiguous illusions

Write the correct letter A-D in boxes 16-20 on your answer sheet:

  1. may be perceived differently by individuals of diverse ethnic origin ...
  2. may override our natural ability to make rational judgement ...
  3. may be interpreted differently even by the same subject ...
  4. may result due to chemical stimulation ...
  5. has been used to question the validity of arguments in a different field ...

Задание No 4 – Questions 21-25

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write your answers in boxes 21-25 on your answer sheet:

  1. Fictional illusions:
  2. a) may eventualy lead to schizophrenia
    b) are the only type which are completely subjective
    c) are very similar to paradox illusions
    d) are typical of cognitive illusions

  3. According to ambiguous illusion theory, which face of the Necker Cube is interpreted to be the front of the box due to the general tendancy to view objects from above?
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  5. Which diagram represents the Muller-Lyer illusion?
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  7. The Penrose Stairs are an example of a model which:
  8. a) can persuade the viewer they are seeing something infeasible
    b) has disproven established theories on knowledge
    c) is a naturally occurring paradox illusion
    d) can be seen in a number of international locations

  9. Occurrences on 'gravity' or 'magnetic' hills result due to:
  10. a) the mineral content of soil in the area
    b) factors currently unexplained from a scientific perspective
    c) misleading natural points of reference
    d) rising slopes being misinterpreted as on a decline

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