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Английские модальные глаголы и глагол-связка в английском настоящем времени Present Indefinite / Present Simple

В Present Indefinite английский глагол-связка to be и модальные глаголы can, may и must образуют вопросительную и отрицательную формы без вспомогательных глаголов, они сами выносятся в начало предложения перед подлежащим при образовании вопроса, и сами принимают после себя английскую отрицательную частицу not:

Сравните следующие схемы английских предложений с модальными глаголами:

You can speak English. - Вы можете говорить по-английски. - утверждение: подлежащее + модальный глагол + смысловой глагол (инфинитив без частицы to) + прямое дополнение (дословно: говорить кого? что? английский).

Can you speak English? - Вы можете говорить по-английски? - вопрос: общее количество слов в предложений не изменилось, но модальный глагол ушел в начало предложения; подлежащее + модальный глагол + смысловой глагол (инфинитив без частицы to) + прямое дополнение?
You cannot speak English. - Вы не можете говорить по-английски. - отрицание: в предложение добавилась лишь отрицательная частица not сразу после модального глагола; подлежащее + модальный глагол + отрицательная частица not + смысловой глагол (инфинитив без частицы to) + прямое дополнение.

Случаи употребления английского времени Present Indefinite / Present Simple:

The Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense употребляется для выражения регулярно повторяющегося, обычного, происходящего в настоящее время действия, не соотнесенного с непосредственным моментом речи:

I drive a Ford. - Я вожу Форд - не в данный момент, а вообще, по жизни.

My brother studies at E-English.Ru. - Мой брат учит английский на сайте Английский Онлайн. - сейчас он на свидании с подружкой, но обычно учит английский онлайн.

My girlfriend speaks English well. - Моя девушка хорошо говорит по-английски. - сейчас она спит, но вообще умеет хорошо говорить по-английски.

Повторяющийся, обычный характер действия, передаваемого Present Indefinite или Simple, часто подчеркивается английскими наречиями неопределенного времени: always - всеггда, usually - обычно, often - часто, sometimes - иногда, rarely - редко, very seldom - очень редко, never - никогда. В предложении они стоят перед глаголом действия или после глагола-связки to be:

I always brush my teeth in the morning. - Я всегда чищу зубы по утрам. - английское наречие неопределенного времени стоит перед смысловым глаголом brush.

My teeth are always brushed. - Мои зубы [есть] всегда вычищены. - английское наречие неопределенного времени стоит после глагола-связки.

Предложения с глаголом действия (английские переходные и непереходные глаголы):

I always get up at 7.00. - Я всегда встаю в 7 часов.
We sometimes go sailing at weekends. - Иногда мы совершаем морские прогулки в выходные.
Do you often go to the cinema? - Ты часто ходишь в кино?

Предложения с английским глаголом-связкой to be:

Margaret is always late for office. - Маргарита всегда опаздывает на работу.
Mike is never at home when I call. - Майка никогда нет дома, когда я звоню.

The Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense может заменять продолженное время The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense с глаголам состояния, которые не имеют продолженной формы в английском языке: understand, want, know, see, hear и др.:

I quite understand what you mean. - Я вполне понимаю, что вы имеете в виду.

Мы видим, что Present Indefinite употребляется вместо The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense с глаголами для описания действия, которое хотя и совершается в момент речи, но называется в общем виде, а не воспринимается именно как процесс:

You leave me no choice. - Вы не оставляете мне выбора. I refuse to listen to you. You talk too much. - Я отказываюсь слушать вас. Вы говорите слишком много.

Настоящее простое английское время может употребляться вместо The Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense в придаточных обстоятельственных предложениях времени (после союзов when, after, before, till / until, as soon as, while), условия (после союзов if, unless, in case), уступки (после союзов even if, even though, whatever, whenever, however и др.):

If we don't find him at home we'll leave him a message. - Если мы не застанем его дома, мы оставим ему записку.

Present Indefinite заменяет The Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense для выражения действий, которые должны произойти в ближайшем будущем согласно программе, договоренности или плану:

Your plane leaves in an hour's time. - Твой самолет вылетает через час.

Также Present Simple заменяет The Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense в вопросах, относящихся к ближайшему будущему времени:

What do we do next? - Что мы сделаем дальше?

Present Indefinite может употребляться вместо The Past Indefinite (Simple) Tense для описания событий в прошлом с целю придать описываемому событию больший драматический эффект:

I remember the scene very well. Mr Blake, in a dinner-jacket, arrives at the ground floor by lift. The lift door opens: Blake gets out, looks at something on the left... - Я очень хорошо помню эту сцену. Мистер Блейк, одетый к обеду в смокинг, спустился на первый этаж на лифте. Дверь лифта открылась: Блейк вышел, посмотрел налево...

The Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense может употребляться в восклицательных предложениях, в этом случае обстоятельство образа действия часто выносится в начало для усиления (эмфатическая инверсия в английском языке):

How swiftly the years fly! - Как быстро летят годы!

Практическая часть английского разговорного урока онлайн: как арендовать машину за границей, прокат авто за рубежом самостоятельно и недорого

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