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Составные существительные
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Составные существительные. Compound Nouns

Составное существительное в английском языке обычно образуется из двух простых слов (то есть слов, состоящих исключительно из корней) - это могут быть два существительных или прилагательное и существительное. Составное существительное в английском языке имеет, как правило, одно ударение, падающее на первое слово: ink-pot (ink + pot) - чернильница (существительное чернила + существительное банка), letter-box (letter + box) - почтовый ящик (существительное письмо + существительное ящик), mailbox (mail + box) - почтовый ящик (существительное почта + существительное ящик), milkman (milk + man) - разносчик молока (существительное молоко + существительное человек), earring (ear + ring) - сережка (существительное ухо + существительное кольцо), blackboard (black + board) - школьная доска для мела (прилагательное black + существительное board), whiteboard (white + board) - маркерная (доска с белым пластиковым покрытием, на которой пишут маркерами, прилагательное white + существительное board), hothouse (hot + house) – теплица (прилагательное горячий + существительное дом). Некоторые старые составные существительные образуются из глаголов и существительных: charcoal (char + coal) - древесный уголь (в отличие от каменного, является продуктом горения дерева при недостатке кислорода, глагол обугливать(ся) + существительное уголь).

Основным способом образования составных существительных в английском языке является схема существительное + существительное при этом в английском языке, в отличие от русского, отсутствует понятие соединительных гласных. В русском языке существует три вида аффиксов: приставки или префиксы (используются при префиксальном или приставочном способе образования новых слов), суффиксы или постфиксы (используются при постфиксальном или суффиксальном способе образования новых слов) и интерфиксы - служебные морфемы, не имеющие собственного значения, но служащие для связи корней в составных словах (например, пар-о-воз, пеш-е-ход, разговорные неологизмы в русском языке также подчиняются этому правилу понт-о-рез - то есть человек, который режет понты). В английском языке имеется только два вида аффиксов: приставки или префиксы - их мы изучили, когда говорили о суффиксах английских существительных пару уроков тому назад, и суффиксы или постфиксы - о них мы говорили на предыдущем уроке, разбирая универсальные приставки в английском языке - то есть приставки, которые сочетаются с любой знаменательной частью речи (в русском языке в отношении приставок действует то же самое правило). А вот при образовании составных или сложных существительных по схеме существительное + существительное никаких соединительных гласных или интерфиксов не используется - корни соединяются, что называется, "всухую".

Некоторые составные существительные образуются из двух существительных, соединенных между собой предлогами, то есть строятся по схеме существительное + предложная фраза: son-in-law (son + in + law) - зять (существительное сын + предлог в + существительное закон), editor-in-chief (editor + in + chief) - главный редактор, или полная калька с английского языка шеф-редактор (существительное издатель + предлог in + существительное начальник), ship-of-war (или warship) - боевой корабль (существительное корабль + предлог of + существительное война), не путать с battleship) - линейный корабль (существительное битва + существительное корабль, то есть корабль, на котором держится вся битва, - столетиями основой флотов служили линейные корабли, то есть корабли, которые вели бой, выстроившись в линию).

Также встречаются существительные, образуемые по схеме существительное + предлог: runner-up (runner + up) - спортсмен или команда, занявшие второе место (образовано от фразового глагола run up путем добавления суффикса -er); passer-by (pass + by) - прохожий или проезжий (образовано от фразового глагола pass by путем добавления суффикса -er),

Практически каждый фразовый глагол в английском языке, если его написать слитно или через дефис, приобретает значение существительного, совпадающего по смыслу с фразовым глаголом, от которого оно образовано. То есть существительные, образуемые по схеме существительное + предлог, не являются производной суффиксальной формой фразового глагола (то есть не образованы по схеме фразовый глагол + er, как в предыдущем случае), а представляют собой фразовый глагол в чистом виде, написанный слитно: hold-up или holdup (hold + up) - вооруженный налет (образовано от фразового глагола hold up). При этом в британском диалекте английского языка основное значение фразового глагола hold up - это стоять в автомобильной пробке, следовательно, само слово hold-up (в британском диалекте есть только один вариант написания этого существительного - через дефис) означает автомобильная пробка. Не обойдено стороной и прямое значение фразового глагола hold up - удерживать что-либо в верхнем положении, в данном смысле a hold up - hold-ups - женский чулок / чулки на резинке. Таких существительных - написанных слитно или через дефис фразовых глаголов - почти столько же, сколько самих фразовых глаголов. Учить их мы не будет - когда вы выучите словарь фразовых глаголов на моем сайте, вы с легкостью сможете понимать составные существительные, образованные путем слитного или дефисного написания фразовых глаголов.

Некоторая часть английских составных существительных образуется по схеме существительное + прилагательное и прилагательное + герундий: truckful, handful, mouthful - объем чего-либо, умещающийся в тачке, ладонях (пригоршня чего-либо), во рту (полный рот чего-либо) - очень важно не спутать такие существительные с прилагательными, заканчивающимися на суффикс -ful (в случае с прилагательными такой суффикс обозначает наличие свойства, например: powerful - мощный). В случае же с существительными -ful - это не суффикс, а сокращенная форма английского прилагательного full - полный.

В английском языке появляется все больше новых существительных, образуемых по схеме существительное + герундий. Мы знаем, что герундий в английском языке - это промежуточная форма между глаголом и существительным. Поэтому, сочетая герундий с существительными и с прилагательными, можно образовывать новые слова: train-spotting (train + spot + (t)ing) - трейнспоттинг (существительное поезд + глагол замечать, подмечать + ing-овое окончание - увлечение среди энтузиастов железнодорожного транспорта, которые стремятся увидеть и сфотографировать как можно больше единиц интересующей их разновидности железнодорожного подвижного состава). Если в этом составном существительном заменить train на car, то получится неожиданный смысл: составное существительное car-spotting также состоит из существительного car и герундия spot + (t)ing, однако глагол spot - это не только замечать, подмечать. Основное значение существительного spot - это место, зона, следовательно, следуя правилам конверсии, которые мы изучили три урока тому назад, spot как глагол - это размещать в определенном месте, ставить на конкретное место Так вот, car-spotting - это дословно размещение железнодорожных вагонов, то есть пересортировка вагонов и компоновка новых железнодорожных составов на товарной станции.

На первый взгляд, такой разброс значений - hold-up - вооруженный налет, автомобильная пробка, женский чулок на резинке или train-spotting - вид хобби, а car-spotting - формирование железнодорожных составов - должен приводить в ужас, на самом деле - наоборот: английский язык очень логичен, на следующем уроке мы выучим основные закономерности такого явления, как многозначность английских слов. В отличие от русского языка, где для каждого нового значения заимствовались новые иностранные слова, англичане со времен Middle English обходятся своими силами, и старые слова обретают в английском языке новую жизнь в новых значениях. Это показывает, насколько важно понимать правила английского словообразования, но ни в коем случае не пытаться их зубрить.

Существительные по схеме прилагательное + герундий образуются по схеме очень похожей на описанную выше с той лишь разницей, что в качестве первого определения используется качественное прилагательное (других прилагательных в английском языке и не бывает), а существительных, образованных от прилагательного и герундия намного меньше, чем образованных от существительного с герундием. Разберем пример: dry-cleaning (dry + clean + ing) - химчистка (прилагательное сухой + глагол чистить + ing-овое окончание - дословно: сухое чищенье).

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Медицинская терминология для врачей, изучающих английский язык, читаем книгу Karen Horney: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time
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Chapter 10: The Quest for Power, Prestige and Possession

The quest for affection is one way frequently used in our culture for obtaining reassurance against anxiety. The quest for power, prestige and possession is another.

I should probably explain why I discuss power, prestige and possession as aspects of a single problem. In detail it certainly makes a big difference for a personality whether the prevailing tendency is for one or another of these goals. Which of the goals prevails in the neurotic's striving for reassurance depends on external circumstances as well as on differences in individual gifts and psychic structure. If I deal with them as a unity it is because they all have something in common which distinguishes them from the need for affection. Winning affection means obtaining reassurance through intensified contact with others, while striving for power, prestige and possession means obtaining reassurance through loosening of the contact with others and through fortifying one's own position.

The wish to dominate, to win prestige, to acquire wealth, is certainly not in itself a neurotic trend, just as the wish for affection is not in itself neurotic. In order to understand the characteristics of the neurotic striving in this direction it should be compared with the normal. The feeling of power, for example, may in a normal person be born of the realization of his own superior strength, whether it be physical strength or ability, mental capacities, maturity or wisdom. Or his striving for power may be connected with some particular cause: family, political or professional group, native land, a religious or scientific idea. The neurotic striving for power, however, is born out of anxiety, hatred and feelings of inferiority. To put it categorically, the normal striving for power is born of strength, the neurotic of weakness.

A cultural factor is also involved. Individual power, prestige and possession do not play a role in every culture. With the Pueblo Indians, for instance, striving for prestige is definitely discouraged, and there is but little difference in individual possessions, and thus this striving too has little importance. In that culture it would be meaningless to strive for any kind of dominance as a means of reassurance. That neurotics in our culture choose this way results from the fact that in our social structure power, prestige and possession can give a feeling of greater security.

In searching for the conditions which produce a striving for these ends it becomes apparent that such a striving usually develops only when it has proved impossible to find reassurance for the underlying anxiety through affection. I shall cite an example which shows how such a striving can develop, in the form of ambition, when the need for affection is thwarted.

A girl was strongly attached to her brother who was four years older than she. They had indulged in tenderness of a more or less sexual character, but when the girl was eight years old her brother suddenly rejected her, pointing out that they were now too old for that sort of play. Soon after this experience the girl developed a sudden fierce ambition at school. It was caused certainly by a disappointment in her quest for affection and this was all the more painful as this child had not many people to cling to. The father was indifferent to his children, and the mother conspicuously preferred the brother. But it was not only disappointment that she felt, but also a terrible blow to her pride. She did not realize that the change in the brother's attitude was caused simply by his approaching puberty. Therefore she felt ashamed and humiliated, and so much the more since her self-confidence had in any case stood on too insecure a basis. The mother had not wanted her in the first place, and she was made to feel insignificant because the mother, a beautiful woman, was much admired by everyone; besides, the brother was not only preferred by the mother but also enjoyed her confidence. The marriage of the parents was unhappy and the mother discussed all her troubles with the brother. Thus the girl felt completely left out. She made one more attempt to get the affection she needed: she fell in love with a boy whom she met on a trip immediately after the painful experience with her brother, was quite elated and began spinning glorious fantasies about this boy. When he dropped out of sight she reacted to the new disappointment by becoming depressed.

As quite frequently happens in situations of this kind, the parents and the family physician ascribed her condition to her being in too high a class at school. They took her out of school, sent her to a summer resort for recreation, and then put her in a class a year below the one she had been in before. It was then, at the age of nine, that she showed an ambition of a rather desperate character. She could not endure being any but first in her class. At the same time her relations with other girls, which had formerly been friendly, became visibly impaired.

This example illustrates the typical factors that combine to generate a neurotic ambition: from the beginning she felt insecure because she felt unwanted; considerable antagonism was created, which could not be expressed because the mother, the dominant figure in the family, demanded blind admiration; the repressed hatred generated a great deal of anxiety; her selfesteem had never had a chance to grow, she had been humiliated on several occasions, and she felt definitely stigmatized by the experience with her brother; attempts to reach out for affection as a means of reassurance had failed.

The neurotic strivings for power, prestige and possession serve not only as a protection against anxiety, but also as a channel through which repressed hostility can be discharged. I shall discuss first how each of these strivings offers a special protection against anxiety, and then the particular ways in which it can serve to liberate hostility.

The striving for power serves in the first place as a protection against helplessness, which as we have seen is one of the basic elements in anxiety. The neurotic is so averse to any remote appearance of helplessness or weakness in himself that he will shun situations which the normal person considers entirely commonplace, such as any acceptance of guidance, advice, or help, any kind of dependence on persons or circumstances, any giving in to or agreeing with others. This protest against helplessness does not arise in all its intensity at once, but increases gradually; the more the neurotic feels factually handicapped by his inhibitions, the less he is factually able to assert himself. The weaker he factually becomes the more anxiously he has to avoid anything that has a faint resemblance to weakness.

In the second place, the neurotic striving for power serves as a protection against the danger of feeling or being regarded as insignificant. The neurotic develops a rigid and irrational ideal of strength which makes him believe he should be able to master any situation, no matter how difficult, and should master it right away. This ideal becomes linked with pride, and as a consequence the neurotic considers weakness not only as a danger but also as a disgrace. He classifies people as either "strong" or "weak," admiring the former and despising the latter. He goes to extremes also in what he considers to be weakness. He has more or less contempt for all persons who agree with him or give in to his wishes, who have inhibitions or do not control their emotions so closely that they always show an impassive face. He despises the same qualities in himself as well. He feels humiliated if he has to recognize the existence of an anxiety or an inhibition in himself, and thus despises himself for having a neurosis and is anxious to keep this fact a secret. He also despises himself for not being able to cope with it alone.

The particular forms that such a striving for power will take depend upon what lack of power is most feared or despised. I shall mention a few expressions of this striving that are especially frequent.

For one, the neurotic will desire to have control over others as well as over himself. He wants nothing to happen that he has not initiated or approved of. This quest for control may take the attenuated form of consciously permitting the other to have full freedom, but insisting on knowing about everything he does, and feeling irritated if anything is kept a secret. Tendencies to control may be repressed to such a degree that not only the person himself, but even those about him, may be convinced of his great generosity in allowing freedom to the other. If a person represses his desire for control so completely he may, however, become depressed or have severe headaches or stomach upsets every time the other has an appointment with other friends or unexpectedly comes home late. Not knowing the cause of the disturbances he may accredit them to weather conditions, to an error in diet or similar irrelevant conditions. Much of what appears as curiosity is determined by a secret wish to control the situation.

Also persons of this type are inclined to want to be right all the time, and are irritated at being proved wrong, even if only in an insignificant detail. They have to know everything better than anyone else, an attitude which may at times be embarrassingly conspicuous. Persons who are otherwise serious and dependable, when confronted with a question to which they do not know the answer, may pretend to know, or may invent something, even if ignorance in this particular instance would not discredit them. Sometimes the emphasis is on the need to know in advance what will happen, to anticipate and predict every possibility. This attitude may go with a distaste for any situation involving uncontrollable factors. No risk should be taken. The emphasis on self-control shows in an aversion to being carried away by any feelings. The attraction which a neurotic woman feels for a man may suddenly turn into contempt if he falls in love with her. Patients of this type find it hard to allow themselves much drift in free associations, because that would mean losing control and letting themselves be carried into unknown territory.

Another attitude that may characterize the neurotic in his striving for power is the desire to have his own way. It may be a constant source of acute irritation to him if others do not do exactly what he expects of them and exactly at the time he expects it. The attitude of impatience is closely connected with this aspect of the striving for power. Any kind of delay, any enforced waiting, even if only for traffic lights, will become a source of irritation. More often than not the neurotic himself is not aware of the existence, or at least of the extent, of his bossing attitude. It is a fact definitely to his interest not to recognize it and not to change it, because it has important protective functions. Nor should others recognize it, because if they do there is a danger of losing their affection.

This lack of awareness has important implications for love relationships. If a lover or husband does not exactly live up to expectations, if he is late, does not telephone, goes out of town, a neurotic woman feels that he does not love her. Instead of recognizing that what she feels is a plain anger reaction to a lack of compliance with wishes of her own, which as often as not are inarticulate, she interprets the situation as evidence that she is unwanted. This fallacy is very frequent indeed in our culture, and it contributes greatly to the feeling of being unwanted which is often a crucial factor in neuroses. As a rule it is learned from parents. A dominating mother feeling resentment about a child's disobedience will believe, and declare, that the child does not love her. A queer contradiction often arises on this basis which may considerably frustrate any love relationships. Neurotic girls cannot love a "weak" man because of their contempt for any weakness; but neither can they cope with a "strong" man because they expect their partner always to give in. Hence what they secretly look for is the hero, the superstrong man, who at the same time is so weak that he will bend to all their wishes without hesitance.

Another attitude in the striving for power is that of never giving in. Agreeing with an opinion or accepting advice, even if they are considered right, is felt as a weakness, and the mere idea of doing so provokes rebellion. Persons for whom this attitude is important are inclined to lean over backward and, out of sheer fear of giving in, compulsively take the opposite stand. The most general expression of this attitude is the neurotic's secret insistence that the world should adapt itself to him instead of his adapting himself to the world. One of the basic difficulties in psychoanalytic therapy comes from this source. The ultimate reason for a patient's analysis is not the gaining of knowledge or insight, but the use of this insight in order to change his attitudes. In spite of recognizing that a change would be for his own good, a neurotic of this type abhors this prospect of changing because it implies for him a final giving in. The incapacity to do this has implications also for love relationships. Love, whatever else it may mean, always implies surrender, giving in to the lover as well as to one's own feelings. The more a person, whether man or woman, is incapable of such giving in, the more unsatisfactory will be his love relationships. This same factor may have a bearing also on frigidity, inasmuch as having an orgasm presupposes just this capacity of completely letting go.

The influence which we have seen that the striving for power has on love relations allows us to understand more completely many of the implications of the neurotic need for affection. Many of the attitudes involved in the striving for affection cannot be wholly understood without considering the part that is played in them by the striving for power.

The quest for power is, as we have seen, a protection against helplessness and against insignificance. This latter function it shares with the quest for prestige.

The neurotic that falls in this group develops a stringent need to impress others, to be admired and respected. He will have fantasies of impressing others with beauty or intelligence or with some outstanding accomplishment; he will spend money lavishly and conspicuously; he will have to be able to talk about the latest books and plays, and to know prominent people. He will not be able to have anyone as a friend, husband, wife, employee, who does not admire him. His entire self-esteem rests on being admired, and shrinks to nothing if he does not receive admiration. Because of his excessive sensitivity, and because he is continually sensing humiliations, life is a constant ordeal. Often he is unaware of feeling humiliated, because the knowledge would be too painful; but whether aware of it or not, he reacts to any such feeling with a rage proportionate to the pain felt. Hence his attitude leads to a constant generation of new hostility and new anxiety.

For purposes of mere description such a person could be called narcissistic. If he is considered dynamically, however, the term is misleading because, though he is constantly preoccupied with inflating his ego, he does it not primarily for the sake of self-love, but for the sake of protecting himself against a feeling of insignificance and humiliation, or, in positive terms, for the sake of repairing a crushed self-esteem.

The more distant his relations with others, the more his quest for prestige can be internalized; it appears then as a need to be infallible and wonderful in his own eyes. Every shortcoming, whether recognized as such or only felt dimly, is considered a humiliation.

Protection against helplessness and insignificance or humiliation can be had also, in our culture, by striding for possession, inasmuch as wealth gives both power and prestige. The irrational quest for possession is so widespread in our culture that it is only by making comparisons with other cultures that one recognizes that it is not a general human instinct, either in the form of an acquisitive instinct or in the form of a sublimation of biologically founded drives. Even in our culture compulsive striving for possession vanishes as soon as the anxieties determining it are diminished or removed.

The specific fear against which possession is a protection is that of impoverishment, destitution, dependence on others. The fear of impoverishment may be a whip driving a person to work incessantly and never miss a chance of earning money. The defensive character of this striving shows in his inability to use his money for the sake of greater enjoyment. The quest for possession need not be directed only toward money or material things, but may appear as a possessive attitude toward others and serve as a protection against losing affection. As the phenomenon of possessiveness is well known, particularly from its appearance in marriages, where law supplies a legal basis for such claims, and as its characteristics are much the same as those described when discussing the quest for power, I shall not give special examples here.

The three strivings I have described serve, as I have said, not only as reassurance against anxiety but also as a means of releasing hostility. Depending on which striving is dominant, this hostility takes the form of a tendency to domineer, a tendency to humiliate or a tendency to deprive others.

The domineering characteristic of the neurotic striving for power does not necessarily appear openly as hostility toward others. It may be disguised in socially valuable or humanistic forms, appearing for example as an attitude of giving advice, liking to manage other persons' affairs, taking the initiative or lead. But if there is hostility concealed in such attitudes, the other persons - children, marriage partners, employees - will feel it and react either with submissiveness or with opposition. The neurotic himself is usually unaware of the hostility involved. Even if he becomes infuriated when things do not go his way, he still maintains his belief that he is essentially a gentle soul who is annoyed only because people are so ill advised as to oppose him. What actually takes place, however, is that the neurotic's hostility is pressed into civilized forms and breaks out when he does not succeed in having his own way. The occasions of his irritation may be of a kind which other persons would not feel as opposition, such as a mere difference in opinion or a failure to follow his advice. Yet considerable rage may be generated by such trifles. One might consider the domineering attitude a safety valve through which a certain amount of hostility may be discharged in a non-destructive way. Since it is itself an attenuated expression of hostility it provides a means of checking purely destructive impulses.

The rage arising from opposition may be repressed and, as we have seen, the repressed hostility may then result in new anxiety. This may manifest itself in depression or fatigue. Since the occasions which arouse these reactions are so insignificant that they escape attention, and since the neurotic is not aware of his own reactions, such depressions or anxiety states may seem to have no external stimulation. Only accurate observation can gradually uncover the connection between the stimulating events and the subsequent reactions.

A further peculiarity resulting from the compulsion to domineer is the person's incapacity to have any fifty-fifty relationships. He either has to lead or he feels entirely lost, dependent and helpless. He is so autocratic that everything falling short of complete domination is felt as subjugation. If his anger is repressed the repression may result in his feeling depressed, discouraged and fatigued. What is felt as helplessness may, however, be only a circuitous way of assuring dominance or of expressing hostility for not being able to lead. A woman, to cite an example, was taking a walk with her husband in a foreign city. Up to a certain point she had studied a map in advance, and took the lead. But when they came to places and streets she had not studied on the map, and where she consequently felt insecure, she yielded the guidance of the walk altogether to her husband. And although she had been gay and active until then, she suddenly felt overwhelmed by fatigue, and could hardly put one foot before the other. Most of us know of relationships between marriage partners, siblings, friends, in which the neurotic person acts like a slave driver, using his helplessness as a whip in order to compel the other to serve his will, in order to command unending attention and help. It is characteristic of these situations that the neurotic person never benefits from the efforts made for him, but responds only with renewed complaints and renewed demands, or worse, with accusations that he is neglected and abused.

The same behavior can be observed in the process of analysis. Patients of this kind may ask desperately for help, yet not only will they fail to follow any suggestion, but they will express resentment at not being helped. If they do receive help by reaching an understanding of some peculiarity they immediately fall back into their previous vexation and, as if nothing had been done, they will manage to erase the insight which was the result of the analyst's hard labor. Then the patient compels the analyst to put in new efforts which again are doomed to failure.

The patient may receive a double satisfaction from such a situation: by presenting himself as helpless he receives a sort of triumph at being able to compel the analyst to slave in his service. At the same time this strategy tends to elicit feelings of helplessness in the analyst, and thus, since his own entanglements prevent him from dominating in a constructive way, he finds a possibility of destructive domination. Needless to say, the satisfaction gained in this way is entirely unconscious, just as the technique used in order to gain it is applied unconsciously. All that the patient himself is aware of is that he is in great need of help, and does not get it. Hence the patient not only feels completely justified in his own eyes in acting as he does, but he also feels that he has a good right to be angry with the analyst. At the same time he cannot help registering the fact that he is playing an insidious game and consequently he is afraid of discovery and retaliation. Therefore in defense he feels it necessary to strengthen his position, and he does this by turning the tables. It is not that he is secretly carrying out some destructive aggression, but that the analyst is neglecting, cheating and abusing him. This position, however, can be assumed and maintained with conviction only if he really feels victimized. Not only has a person in this condition no interest in recognizing that he is not maltreated, but on the contrary he has a strong interest in maintaining his belief. His insistence that he is being victimized often gives rise to the impression that he wants to be maltreated. In reality he wants it as little as any of us wants it, but his belief in being maltreated has acquired too important a function to be given up easily.

There may be so much hostility involved in the domineering attitude that it creates a new anxiety. This may then result in such inhibitions as an inability to give orders, to be decisive, to express a precise opinion, with the result that the neurotic often appears unduly compliant. This in turn leads him to mistake his inhibitions for an innate softness.

In persons in whom the craving for prestige is uppermost, hostility usually takes the form of a desire to humiliate others. This desire is paramount in those persons whose own self-esteem has been wounded by humiliation and who have thus become vindictive. Usually they have gone through a series of humiliating experiences in childhood, experiences that may have had to do either with the social situation in which they grew up - such as belonging to a minority group, or being themselves poor but having wealthy relatives - or with their own individual situation, such as being discriminated against for the sake of other children, being spurned, being treated as a plaything by the parents, being sometimes spoiled and other times shamed and snubbed. Often experiences of this kind are forgotten because of their painful character, but they reappear in awareness if the problems concerning humiliation are clarified. In adult neurotics, however, never the direct but only the indirect results of these childhood situations can be observed, results which have been reinforced by passing through a "vicious circle": a feeling of humiliation; a desire to humiliate others; enhanced sensitivity to humiliation because of a fear of retaliation; enhanced wish to humiliate others.

The tendencies to humiliate are deeply repressed, usually because the neurotic, knowing from his own sensitivity how hurt and vindictive he feels when humiliated, is instinctively afraid of similar reactions in others. Nevertheless some of these tendencies may emerge without his being conscious of it: in an inadvertent disregard of others, such as letting them wait, in inadvertently bringing others into embarrassing situations, in letting others feel dependent. Even if the neurotic is completely unaware of wishing to humiliate others or of having done so, his relations with them will be pervaded by a diffuse anxiety which is revealed in a constant anticipation of rebuke or humiliation for himself. I shall return later to such fears, when discussing the fear of failure. Inhibitions resulting from this sensitivity to humiliation often appear in the form of a need to avoid anything which might possibly seem humiliating to others; such a neurotic, for example, may be incapable of criticizing, of refusing an offer, of dismissing an employee, with the result that he often appears over-considerate or over-polite.

Finally, a tendency to humiliate may be hidden behind a tendency to admire. Since inflicting humiliation and bestowing admiration are diametrically opposed, the latter offers the best means of eradicating or concealing tendencies toward the former. This is the reason also why both these extremes are frequently to be found in the same person. There are several ways in which the two attitudes may be distributed, the reasons for the distribution being dependent on the individual. They may appear separately in different periods of life, a period of a general contempt for people succeeding a period of hero-worship; there may be admiration for men and contempt for women, or vice versa; or there may be blind admiration for one or two persons, and just as blind a contempt for the rest of the world. It is in the process of analysis that one can observe that the two attitudes in reality exist together. A patient may at the same time blindly admire and despise the analyst, either suppressing one of the two feelings or vacillating between them.

In the striving for possession hostility usually takes the form of a tendency to deprive others. The wish to cheat, steal from, exploit or frustrate others is not in itself neurotic. It may be culturally patterned, or it may be warranted by the actual situation, or it may normally be considered a question of expediency. In the neurotic person, however, these tendencies are highly charged with emotion. Even if the positive advantages he derives from them are slight or irrelevant he will feel dated and triumphant if he meets with success; in order to find a bargain, for example, he may spend time and energy entirely disproportionate to the amount waved. His satisfaction at success has two sources: a feeling that he has outwitted others, and a feeling that lie has injured others.

This tendency to deprive others takes many forms. The neurotic person will feel resentment toward a physician if he is not treated gratuitously, or for less than he is able to pay. He will feel anger toward his employees if they are not willing to work overtime without pay. In relations with friends and children the exploiting tendency is often justified by alleging that they have an obligation toward him. Parents may actually destroy their children's lives by demanding sacrifices on such a basis, and even if the tendency does not appear in such destructive forms, any mother who acts according to the belief that the child exists to give her satisfaction is bound to exploit the child emotionally. A neurotic of this kind may also tend to withhold things from others, withhold money which he ought to pay, information which he could give, sexual satisfaction which he has led another to expect. The presence of robbing tendencies may be indicated by repeated dreams of stealing, or he may have conscious impulses to steal, which he checks; he may actually have been a kleptomaniac at some period.

Persons of this general type are often unaware that they purposely deprive others. The anxiety connected with their wish to do so may result in an inhibition as soon as something is expected of them, so that, for example, they forget to buy an expected birthday present, or they become impotent if a woman is willing to yield to them. This anxiety, however, does not always lead to an actual inhibition, but may become apparent in a lurking fear that they are exploiting or depriving others, as indeed they are, though consciously they would indignantly repudiate such an intention. A neurotic may even have this fear concerning certain of his activities in which these tendencies are actually not present, at the same time remaining unaware that in other activities he does exploit or deprive other people.

These tendencies to deprive others are accompanied by an emotional attitude of begrudging envy. Most of us will feel some envy if others have certain advantages which we should like to have ourselves. With the normal person, however, the emphasis lies on the fact that he wishes to have these advantages himself; with the neurotic the emphasis lies on the fact that he begrudges them to others, even if he does not want them at all. Mothers of this kind often begrudge the gaiety of their children and tell them that "those who sing before breakfast will cry before supper".

The neurotic will try to disguise the crudity of his be-grudging attitude by putting it on the basis of a justified envy. The advantage of others, whether it concern a doll, a girl, leisure or a job, appears so glorious and desirable that he feels entirely justified in his envy. This justification is possible only with the help of some inadvertent falsification of facts: an underestimation of what he has himself, and an illusion that the advantages of others are the really desirable ones. The self-deception may go so far as to make him actually believe that he is in a miserable state because he fails to have the one advantage in which another person surpasses him, completely forgetting that in all other respects he would not like to change with the other. The price he has to pay for this falsification is incapacity to enjoy and appreciate the possibilities for happiness that are available. This incapacity, however, serves to protect him from the much-feared envy of others. He does not deliberately keep himself from satisfaction with what he has, as many normal persons who have good reason to protect themselves against the envy of certain persons, and therefore misrepresent their real situation; he does a thorough job of it, and really deprives himself of any enjoyment. Thus he defeats his own ends: he wants to have everything, but in consequence of his destructive drives and anxieties he emerges at the end with empty hands.

It is obvious that the tendency to deprive or exploit, like all the other hostile tendencies we have discussed, not only arises from impaired personal relations but results in further impairment. Particularly if this tendency is more or less unconscious, as is usually the case, it necessarily renders the person self-conscious or even timid toward others. He may behave and feel free and natural toward persons from whom he does not expect anything, but he will become self-conscious as soon as there is any possibility of getting any advantage from someone. The advantage may concern tangible things, such as information or a recommendation, or it may concern something much less tangible, such as the mere possibility of future favors. This is true in erotic as in all other relationships. A neurotic of this type may be frank and natural with men for whom she does not care, but feel embarrassed and constrained toward a man whom she wants to like her, because, for her, obtaining his affection is identified with getting something out of him.

Persons of this type may have an exceptionally good earning capacity, thus leading their impulses into profitable channels. More often, they will develop inhibitions concerning the earning of money, so that they will hesitate to ask for pay or will do a great deal of work without getting an adequate reward, thus appearing to behave more generously than is really the case. They are likely then to become discontented at their inadequate earnings, often without knowing the reason for the discontentment If the neurotic's inhibitions become so ramified that they pervade his whole personality the result will be a general incapacity to stand on hia own feet, and he will have to be supported by others. He will then lead a parasitic kind of existence, thus satisfying his exploiting tendencies. This parasitic attitude will not necessarily appear in the gross form of "the world owes me a living", but may take the more subtle form of expecting others to do him favors, to take the initiative, to give him ideas for his work, in short, expecting others to take the responsibility for his life. The result is an odd attitude toward life in general: he has no clear conception that this is his own life, and that it is up to him to make something out of it or to spoil it, but he lives as if what happens to him were no concern of his own, as if good and evil came from the outside without his having anything to do about it, as if he had a right to expect the good things from others and to blame them for all bad things. Since in these circumstances usually more bad than good is produced, a growing embitterment against the world is almost inevitable. This parasitic attitude can be found also in the neurotic need for affection, especially when the need for affection tak'es the form of a craving for material favors.

Another frequent outcome of the neurotic's tendency to deprive or exploit is an anxiety that he will be cheated or exploited by others. He may live in a perpetual fear that someone will take advantage of him, that money or ideas will be stolen from him, and he will react to every person he meets with the fear that this person might want something of him. A seemingly disproportionate amount of anger is discharged if he is really cheated, if, for example, a taxi-driver does not take the shortest route, or if a waiter overcharges him. The psychic value of projecting one's own abusing tendencies on others is obvious. It is far more pleasant to feel a righteous indignation at others than to face a problem of one's own. Moreover, hysterical persons often use accusations as a means of intimidation, or bullying the other into feeling guilty and thus letting himself be abused. Sinclair Lewis has given a brilliant description of this kind of strategy in the character of Mrs. Dodsworth.

The aims and functions of the neurotic striving for power, prestige and possession can be very roughly schematized as follows:

AIMS
REASSURANCE AGAINST
HOSTILITY APPEARS IN THE FORM OF
power
helplessness
tendency to domineer
prestige
humiliation
tendency to humiliate
possession
destitution
tendency to deprive others

It is an achievement of Alfred Adler to have seen and emphasized the importance of these strivings, the role they play in neurotic manifestations and the disguises in which they appear. Adler, however, assumes these strivings to be the foremost trend in human nature, not in themselves requiring any explanation;1 their intensification in neurotics he traces back to feelings of inferiority and to physical inadequacies.

Freud has also seen many of the implications of these strivings, but he does not regard them as belonging together. The striving for prestige he considers an expression of narcissistic tendencies. He would originally have considered the strivings for power and possession, and the hostility involved in them, as derivatives of the "anal-sadistic stage". Later, however, he recognized that such hostilities could not be reduced to a sexual basis, and assumed them to be an expression of a "death instinct," thus remaining faithful to his biological orientation. Neither Adler nor Freud has recognized the role that anxiety plays in bringing about such drives, nor has either of them seen the cultural implications in the forms in which they are expressed.

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